In higher eukaryotes, chromosomes have a complex three-dimensional (3D) conformation in the cell nucleus serving vital functional purposes, yet their folding principles remain poorly understood at the single-molecule level. Here, we summarize recent approaches from polymer physics to comprehend the physical mechanisms underlying chromatin architecture. In particular, we focus on two models that have been supported by recent, growing experimental evidence, the Loop Extrusion model and the Strings&Binders phase separation model. We discuss their key ingredients, how they compare to experimental data and some insight they provide on chromatin architecture and gene regulation. Progresses in that research field are opening the possibility to predict how genomic mutations alter the network of contacts between genes and their regulators and how that is linked to genetic diseases, such as congenital disorders and cancer.

Physical mechanisms of chromatin spatial organization / Chiariello, A. M.; Bianco, S.; Esposito, A.; Fiorillo, L.; Conte, M.; Irani, E.; Musella, F.; Abraham, A.; Prisco, A.; Nicodemi, M.. - In: THE FEBS JOURNAL. - ISSN 1742-464X. - (2021). [10.1111/febs.15762]

Physical mechanisms of chromatin spatial organization

Chiariello A. M.
Primo
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Bianco S.;Abraham A.;Nicodemi M.
2021

Abstract

In higher eukaryotes, chromosomes have a complex three-dimensional (3D) conformation in the cell nucleus serving vital functional purposes, yet their folding principles remain poorly understood at the single-molecule level. Here, we summarize recent approaches from polymer physics to comprehend the physical mechanisms underlying chromatin architecture. In particular, we focus on two models that have been supported by recent, growing experimental evidence, the Loop Extrusion model and the Strings&Binders phase separation model. We discuss their key ingredients, how they compare to experimental data and some insight they provide on chromatin architecture and gene regulation. Progresses in that research field are opening the possibility to predict how genomic mutations alter the network of contacts between genes and their regulators and how that is linked to genetic diseases, such as congenital disorders and cancer.
2021
Physical mechanisms of chromatin spatial organization / Chiariello, A. M.; Bianco, S.; Esposito, A.; Fiorillo, L.; Conte, M.; Irani, E.; Musella, F.; Abraham, A.; Prisco, A.; Nicodemi, M.. - In: THE FEBS JOURNAL. - ISSN 1742-464X. - (2021). [10.1111/febs.15762]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/853820
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