Temporin family is one of the largest among antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which act mainly by penetrating and disrupting the bacterial membranes. To further understand the relationship between the physical-chemical properties and their antimicrobial activity and selectivity, an analogue of Temporin L, [Nle1, dLeu9, dLys10]TL (Nle-Phe-Val-Pro-Trp-Phe-Lys-Phe-dLeu-dLys-Arg-Ile-Leu-CONH2) has been developed in the present work. The design strategy consisted of the addition of a norleucine residue at the N-terminus of the lead peptide sequence, [dLeu9, dLys10]TL, previously developed by our group. This modification promoted an increase of peptide hydrophobicity and, interestingly, more efficient activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, without affecting human keratinocytes and red blood cells survival compared to the lead peptide. Thus, this novel compound was subjected to biophysical studies, which showed that the peptide [Nle1, dLeu9, dLys10]TL is unstructured in water, while it adopts β-type conformation in liposomes mimicking bacterial membranes, in contrast to its lead peptide forming α-helical aggregates. After its aggregation in the bacterial membrane, [Nle1, dLeu9, dLys10]TL induced membrane destabilization and deformation. In addition, the increase of peptide hydrophobicity did not cause a loss of anti-inflammatory activity of the peptide [Nle1, dLeu9, dLys10]TL in comparison with its lead peptide. In this study, our results demonstrated that positive net charge, optimum hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance, and chain length remain the most important parameters to be addressed while designing small cationic AMPs.

Synthetic Amphipathic β-Sheet Temporin-Derived Peptide with Dual Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory Activities

Buommino, Elisabetta;Merlino, Francesco;Saviano, Anella;Maione, Francesco;Santangelo, Rosaria;Galdiero, Stefania;Grieco, Paolo;
2022

Abstract

Temporin family is one of the largest among antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which act mainly by penetrating and disrupting the bacterial membranes. To further understand the relationship between the physical-chemical properties and their antimicrobial activity and selectivity, an analogue of Temporin L, [Nle1, dLeu9, dLys10]TL (Nle-Phe-Val-Pro-Trp-Phe-Lys-Phe-dLeu-dLys-Arg-Ile-Leu-CONH2) has been developed in the present work. The design strategy consisted of the addition of a norleucine residue at the N-terminus of the lead peptide sequence, [dLeu9, dLys10]TL, previously developed by our group. This modification promoted an increase of peptide hydrophobicity and, interestingly, more efficient activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, without affecting human keratinocytes and red blood cells survival compared to the lead peptide. Thus, this novel compound was subjected to biophysical studies, which showed that the peptide [Nle1, dLeu9, dLys10]TL is unstructured in water, while it adopts β-type conformation in liposomes mimicking bacterial membranes, in contrast to its lead peptide forming α-helical aggregates. After its aggregation in the bacterial membrane, [Nle1, dLeu9, dLys10]TL induced membrane destabilization and deformation. In addition, the increase of peptide hydrophobicity did not cause a loss of anti-inflammatory activity of the peptide [Nle1, dLeu9, dLys10]TL in comparison with its lead peptide. In this study, our results demonstrated that positive net charge, optimum hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance, and chain length remain the most important parameters to be addressed while designing small cationic AMPs.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/901635
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