Issues concerning the use of harmful chemical fertilizers and pesticides that have large negative impacts on environmental and human health have generated increasing interest in the use of beneficial microorganisms for the development of sustainable agri-food systems. A successful microbial inoculant has to colonize the root system, establish a positive interaction and persist in the environment in competition with native microorganisms living in the soil through rhizocompetence traits. Currently, several approaches based on culture-dependent, microscopic and molecular methods have been developed to follow bioinoculants in the soil and plant surface over time. Although culture-dependent methods are commonly used to estimate the persistence of bioinoculants, it is difficult to differentiate inoculated organisms from native populations based on morphological characteristics. Therefore, these methods should be used complementary to culture-independent approaches. Microscopy-based techniques (bright-field, electron and fluorescence microscopy) allow to obtain a picture of microbial colonization outside and inside plant tissues also at high resolution, but it is not possible to always distinguish living cells from dead cells by direct observation as well as distinguish bioinoculants from indigenous microbial populations living in soils. In addition, the development of metagenomic techniques, including the use of DNA probes, PCR-based methods, next-generation sequencing, whole-genome sequencing and pangenome methods, provides a complementary approach useful to understand plant–soil–microbe interactions. However, to ensure good results in microbiological analysis, the first fundamental prerequisite is correct soil sampling and sample preparation for the different methodological approaches that will be assayed. Here, we provide an overview of the advantages and limitations of the currently used methods and new methodological approaches that could be developed to assess the presence, plant colonization and soil persistence of bioinoculants in the rhizosphere. We further discuss the possibility of integrating multidisciplinary approaches to examine the variations in microbial communities after inoculation and to track the inoculated microbial strains.

Effectiveness of Plant Beneficial Microbes: Overview of the Methodological Approaches for the Assessment of Root Colonization and Persistence / Romano, I.; Ventorino, V.; Pepe, O.. - In: FRONTIERS IN PLANT SCIENCE. - ISSN 1664-462X. - 11:(2020), p. 6. [10.3389/fpls.2020.00006]

Effectiveness of Plant Beneficial Microbes: Overview of the Methodological Approaches for the Assessment of Root Colonization and Persistence

Romano I.
Co-primo
;
Ventorino V.
Co-primo
;
Pepe O.
Ultimo
2020

Abstract

Issues concerning the use of harmful chemical fertilizers and pesticides that have large negative impacts on environmental and human health have generated increasing interest in the use of beneficial microorganisms for the development of sustainable agri-food systems. A successful microbial inoculant has to colonize the root system, establish a positive interaction and persist in the environment in competition with native microorganisms living in the soil through rhizocompetence traits. Currently, several approaches based on culture-dependent, microscopic and molecular methods have been developed to follow bioinoculants in the soil and plant surface over time. Although culture-dependent methods are commonly used to estimate the persistence of bioinoculants, it is difficult to differentiate inoculated organisms from native populations based on morphological characteristics. Therefore, these methods should be used complementary to culture-independent approaches. Microscopy-based techniques (bright-field, electron and fluorescence microscopy) allow to obtain a picture of microbial colonization outside and inside plant tissues also at high resolution, but it is not possible to always distinguish living cells from dead cells by direct observation as well as distinguish bioinoculants from indigenous microbial populations living in soils. In addition, the development of metagenomic techniques, including the use of DNA probes, PCR-based methods, next-generation sequencing, whole-genome sequencing and pangenome methods, provides a complementary approach useful to understand plant–soil–microbe interactions. However, to ensure good results in microbiological analysis, the first fundamental prerequisite is correct soil sampling and sample preparation for the different methodological approaches that will be assayed. Here, we provide an overview of the advantages and limitations of the currently used methods and new methodological approaches that could be developed to assess the presence, plant colonization and soil persistence of bioinoculants in the rhizosphere. We further discuss the possibility of integrating multidisciplinary approaches to examine the variations in microbial communities after inoculation and to track the inoculated microbial strains.
2020
Effectiveness of Plant Beneficial Microbes: Overview of the Methodological Approaches for the Assessment of Root Colonization and Persistence / Romano, I.; Ventorino, V.; Pepe, O.. - In: FRONTIERS IN PLANT SCIENCE. - ISSN 1664-462X. - 11:(2020), p. 6. [10.3389/fpls.2020.00006]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/829919
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