Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is a single chain oxidoreductase that catalyzes tryptophan degradation to kynurenine. In cancer, it exerts an immunosuppressive function as part of an acquired mechanism of immune escape. Recently, we demonstrated that IDO1 expression is significantly higher in all thyroid cancer histotypes compared with normal thyroid and that its expression levels correlate with T regulatory (Treg) lymphocyte densities in the tumor microenvironment. BRAF(V600E)- and RET/PTC3-expressing PcCL3 cells were used as cellular models for the evaluation of IDO1 expression in thyroid carcinoma cells and for the study of involved signal transduction pathways. BRAF(V600E)-expressing PcCL3 cells did not show IDO1 expression. Conversely, RET/PTC3-expressing cells were characterized by a high IDO1 expression. Moreover, we found that, the STAT1-IRF1 pathway was instrumental for IDO1 expression in RET/PTC3 expressing cells. In detail, RET/PTC3 induced STAT1 overexpression and phosphorylation at Ser-727 and Tyr-701. STAT1 transcriptional regulation appeared to require activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway. Conversely, activation of the MAPK and PI3K-AKT pathways primarily regulated Ser-727 phosphorylation, whereas a physical interaction between RET/PTC3 and STAT1, followed by a direct tyrosine phosphorylation event, was necessary for STAT1 Tyr-701 phosphorylation. These data provide the first evidence of a direct link between IDO1 expression and the oncogenic activation of RET in thyroid carcinoma and describe the involved signal transduction pathways. Moreover, they suggest possible novel molecular targets for the abrogation of tumor microenvironment immunosuppression. The detection of those targets is becoming increasingly important to yield the full function of novel immune checkpoint inhibitors.

Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 Plays a Pivotal Role in RET/PTC3 Oncogene-induced Expression of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1

MELILLO, ROSA MARINA;LIOTTI, FEDERICA;SANTORO, MASSIMO;
2017

Abstract

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is a single chain oxidoreductase that catalyzes tryptophan degradation to kynurenine. In cancer, it exerts an immunosuppressive function as part of an acquired mechanism of immune escape. Recently, we demonstrated that IDO1 expression is significantly higher in all thyroid cancer histotypes compared with normal thyroid and that its expression levels correlate with T regulatory (Treg) lymphocyte densities in the tumor microenvironment. BRAF(V600E)- and RET/PTC3-expressing PcCL3 cells were used as cellular models for the evaluation of IDO1 expression in thyroid carcinoma cells and for the study of involved signal transduction pathways. BRAF(V600E)-expressing PcCL3 cells did not show IDO1 expression. Conversely, RET/PTC3-expressing cells were characterized by a high IDO1 expression. Moreover, we found that, the STAT1-IRF1 pathway was instrumental for IDO1 expression in RET/PTC3 expressing cells. In detail, RET/PTC3 induced STAT1 overexpression and phosphorylation at Ser-727 and Tyr-701. STAT1 transcriptional regulation appeared to require activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway. Conversely, activation of the MAPK and PI3K-AKT pathways primarily regulated Ser-727 phosphorylation, whereas a physical interaction between RET/PTC3 and STAT1, followed by a direct tyrosine phosphorylation event, was necessary for STAT1 Tyr-701 phosphorylation. These data provide the first evidence of a direct link between IDO1 expression and the oncogenic activation of RET in thyroid carcinoma and describe the involved signal transduction pathways. Moreover, they suggest possible novel molecular targets for the abrogation of tumor microenvironment immunosuppression. The detection of those targets is becoming increasingly important to yield the full function of novel immune checkpoint inhibitors.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/669976
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