The Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 acts as an enterotoxin able to induce chloride secretion and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), involved in diarrhea pathogenesis. L. rhamnosus GG (LGG) is recommended in pediatric acute gastroenteritis guidelines as a therapy independent of infectious etiology. We tested a postbiotic preparation of LGG (mLGG) in an in vitro model of COVID-associated diarrhea. Caco-2 cell monolayers mounted in Ussing chambers were exposed to Spike protein, and electrical parameters of secretory effect (Isc and TEER) were recorded in the Ussing chambers system. Oxidative stress was analyzed by measuring ROS production (DCFH-DA), GSH levels (DNTB), and lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Experiments were repeated after mLGG pretreatment of cells. The Isc increase induced by Spike was consistent with the secretory diarrhea pattern, which was dependent on oxidative stress defined by a 2-fold increase in ROS production and lipid peroxidation and variation in glutathione levels. mLGG pretreatment significantly reduced the secretory effect (p = 0.002) and oxidative stress, namely ROS (p < 0.001), lipid peroxidation (p < 0.001), and glutathione level changes (p < 0.001). LGG counteracts Spike-induced diarrhea by inhibiting the enterotoxic effect and oxidative stress. The LGG efficacy in the form of a postbiotic depends on metabolites secreted in the medium with antioxidant properties similar to NAC. Because SARS-CoV-2 is an enteric pathogen, the efficacy of LGG independent of etiology in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis is confirmed by our data.

Postbiotic Preparation of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG against Diarrhea and Oxidative Stress Induced by Spike Protein of SARS-CoV-2 in Human Enterocytes / Poeta, Marco; Cioffi, Valentina; Tarallo, Antonietta; Damiano, Carla; Lo Vecchio, Andrea; Bruzzese, Eugenia; Parenti, Giancarlo; Guarino, Alfredo. - In: ANTIOXIDANTS. - ISSN 2076-3921. - 12:10(2023), pp. 1878-1878. [10.3390/antiox12101878]

Postbiotic Preparation of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG against Diarrhea and Oxidative Stress Induced by Spike Protein of SARS-CoV-2 in Human Enterocytes

Poeta, Marco;Tarallo, Antonietta;Damiano, Carla;Lo Vecchio, Andrea;Bruzzese, Eugenia;Parenti, Giancarlo;Guarino, Alfredo
2023

Abstract

The Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 acts as an enterotoxin able to induce chloride secretion and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), involved in diarrhea pathogenesis. L. rhamnosus GG (LGG) is recommended in pediatric acute gastroenteritis guidelines as a therapy independent of infectious etiology. We tested a postbiotic preparation of LGG (mLGG) in an in vitro model of COVID-associated diarrhea. Caco-2 cell monolayers mounted in Ussing chambers were exposed to Spike protein, and electrical parameters of secretory effect (Isc and TEER) were recorded in the Ussing chambers system. Oxidative stress was analyzed by measuring ROS production (DCFH-DA), GSH levels (DNTB), and lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Experiments were repeated after mLGG pretreatment of cells. The Isc increase induced by Spike was consistent with the secretory diarrhea pattern, which was dependent on oxidative stress defined by a 2-fold increase in ROS production and lipid peroxidation and variation in glutathione levels. mLGG pretreatment significantly reduced the secretory effect (p = 0.002) and oxidative stress, namely ROS (p < 0.001), lipid peroxidation (p < 0.001), and glutathione level changes (p < 0.001). LGG counteracts Spike-induced diarrhea by inhibiting the enterotoxic effect and oxidative stress. The LGG efficacy in the form of a postbiotic depends on metabolites secreted in the medium with antioxidant properties similar to NAC. Because SARS-CoV-2 is an enteric pathogen, the efficacy of LGG independent of etiology in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis is confirmed by our data.
2023
Postbiotic Preparation of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG against Diarrhea and Oxidative Stress Induced by Spike Protein of SARS-CoV-2 in Human Enterocytes / Poeta, Marco; Cioffi, Valentina; Tarallo, Antonietta; Damiano, Carla; Lo Vecchio, Andrea; Bruzzese, Eugenia; Parenti, Giancarlo; Guarino, Alfredo. - In: ANTIOXIDANTS. - ISSN 2076-3921. - 12:10(2023), pp. 1878-1878. [10.3390/antiox12101878]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/945166
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