The phytopathogenic fungus Truncatella angustata, associated with grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs) in Iran, produces the well-known secondary metabolite isocoumumarin (+)-6-hyroxyramulosin and surprisingly also phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). PCA, identified by spectroscopic (essentially 1H NMR and ESI MS) spectra, is a bacterial metabolite well known for its antifungal activity and was found for the first time in T. angustata culture filtrates. The antifungal activity of PCA was assayed against four different fungi responsible for GTDs, Phaeoacremonium minimum, Phaeoacremonium italicum, Fomitiporia mediterranea, involved in grapevine esca disease, and Neofusicoccum parvum, responsible for Botryosphaeria dieback. The activity was compared with that of the known commercial fungicide, pentachloronitrobenzene, and the close phenazine. PCA and phenazine exhibited strong antifungal activity against all phytopathogenic fungi, inhibiting the fungal growth by about 90-100% and 80-100%, respectively. These results suggested that T. angustata could use PCA to compete with other phytopathogenic fungi that attack grapevine and thus PCA could be proposed as a biofungicide against the fungi responsible for grapevine esca and Botryosphaeria dieback diseases.
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