Celiac disease (CeD) is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by immunogenic gluten peptides released during the gastrointestinal digestion of wheat. Our aim was to identify T cell epitope-containing peptides after ex vivo digestion of ancestral (einkorn, spelt and emmer) and common (hexaploid) wheat (Fram, Bastian, Børsum and Mirakel) using human gastrointestinal juices. Wheat porridge was digested using a static ex vivo model. Peptides released after 240 min of digestion were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI MS/MS). Ex vivo digestion released fewer T cell epitope-containing peptides from the ancestral wheat varieties (einkorn (n = 38), spelt (n = 45) and emmer (n = 68)) compared to the common wheat varieties (Fram (n = 72), Børsum (n = 99), Bastian (n = 155) and Mirakel (n = 144)). Neither the immunodominant 33mer and 25mer α-gliadin peptides, nor the 26mer γ-gliadin peptide, were found in any of the digested wheat types. In conclusion, human digestive juice was able to digest the 33mer and 25mer α-gliadin, and the 26mer γ-gliadin derived peptides, while their fragments still contained naive T cell reactive epitopes. Although ancestral wheat released fewer immunogenic peptides after human digestion ex vivo, they are still highly toxic to celiac patients. More general use of these ancient wheat variants may, nevertheless, reduce CeD incidence.

Ancestral Wheat Types Release Fewer Celiac Disease Related T Cell Epitopes than Common Wheat upon Ex Vivo Human Gastrointestinal Digestion

Ferranti, Pasquale;
2020

Abstract

Celiac disease (CeD) is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by immunogenic gluten peptides released during the gastrointestinal digestion of wheat. Our aim was to identify T cell epitope-containing peptides after ex vivo digestion of ancestral (einkorn, spelt and emmer) and common (hexaploid) wheat (Fram, Bastian, Børsum and Mirakel) using human gastrointestinal juices. Wheat porridge was digested using a static ex vivo model. Peptides released after 240 min of digestion were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI MS/MS). Ex vivo digestion released fewer T cell epitope-containing peptides from the ancestral wheat varieties (einkorn (n = 38), spelt (n = 45) and emmer (n = 68)) compared to the common wheat varieties (Fram (n = 72), Børsum (n = 99), Bastian (n = 155) and Mirakel (n = 144)). Neither the immunodominant 33mer and 25mer α-gliadin peptides, nor the 26mer γ-gliadin peptide, were found in any of the digested wheat types. In conclusion, human digestive juice was able to digest the 33mer and 25mer α-gliadin, and the 26mer γ-gliadin derived peptides, while their fragments still contained naive T cell reactive epitopes. Although ancestral wheat released fewer immunogenic peptides after human digestion ex vivo, they are still highly toxic to celiac patients. More general use of these ancient wheat variants may, nevertheless, reduce CeD incidence.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
foods-09-01173.pdf

accesso aperto

Licenza: Dominio pubblico
Dimensione 1.5 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.5 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11588/890916
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 4
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact