Biocides based on chemical synthetic compounds have been commonly used to counteract damages caused by microorganisms on stone cultural heritage. However, in the last few years, the use of commercial and traditional biocides has been banned and/or limited due to their dangerous profile for the environment, as well as human and animal health. Natural products could be used as suitable alternatives for cultural heritage purposes, as they have low toxicity and stability compared with synthetic pesticides. Even if most of the investigated solutions have already shown promising results, their efficiency, ecotoxicological, and chemical features are poorly investigated. In this manuscript, we aimed to evaluate the ecotoxicological profile of four fungal metabolites—namely, cavoxin, epiepoformin, seiridin, and sphaeropsidone—with potential antimicrobial properties for monumental artworks. A battery of ecotoxicological tests using Aliivibrio fischeri (bacterium), Raphidocelis subcapitata (alga), Raphanus sativus L. (macrophyte), Daphnia magna (crustacean), and Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode) revealed a relative lower toxicity of these compounds, especially when compared with Preventol® and Rocima®, commercial biocides mainly used for the conservation of cultural heritage.

An Ecotoxicological Evaluation of Four Fungal Metabolites with Potential Application as Biocides for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage / Petraretti, Mariagioia; Siciliano, Antonietta; Carraturo, Federica; Cimmino, Alessio; De Natale, Antonino; Guida, Marco; Pollio, Antonino; Evidente, Antonio; Masi, Marco. - In: TOXINS. - ISSN 2072-6651. - 14:6(2022), pp. 407-417. [10.3390/toxins14060407]

An Ecotoxicological Evaluation of Four Fungal Metabolites with Potential Application as Biocides for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage

Petraretti, Mariagioia;Siciliano, Antonietta;Carraturo, Federica;Cimmino, Alessio;De Natale, Antonino;Guida, Marco;Pollio, Antonino;Evidente, Antonio;Masi, Marco
2022

Abstract

Biocides based on chemical synthetic compounds have been commonly used to counteract damages caused by microorganisms on stone cultural heritage. However, in the last few years, the use of commercial and traditional biocides has been banned and/or limited due to their dangerous profile for the environment, as well as human and animal health. Natural products could be used as suitable alternatives for cultural heritage purposes, as they have low toxicity and stability compared with synthetic pesticides. Even if most of the investigated solutions have already shown promising results, their efficiency, ecotoxicological, and chemical features are poorly investigated. In this manuscript, we aimed to evaluate the ecotoxicological profile of four fungal metabolites—namely, cavoxin, epiepoformin, seiridin, and sphaeropsidone—with potential antimicrobial properties for monumental artworks. A battery of ecotoxicological tests using Aliivibrio fischeri (bacterium), Raphidocelis subcapitata (alga), Raphanus sativus L. (macrophyte), Daphnia magna (crustacean), and Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode) revealed a relative lower toxicity of these compounds, especially when compared with Preventol® and Rocima®, commercial biocides mainly used for the conservation of cultural heritage.
2022
An Ecotoxicological Evaluation of Four Fungal Metabolites with Potential Application as Biocides for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage / Petraretti, Mariagioia; Siciliano, Antonietta; Carraturo, Federica; Cimmino, Alessio; De Natale, Antonino; Guida, Marco; Pollio, Antonino; Evidente, Antonio; Masi, Marco. - In: TOXINS. - ISSN 2072-6651. - 14:6(2022), pp. 407-417. [10.3390/toxins14060407]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/888823
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