Thyroid hormones (THs) are key metabolic regulators coordinating short- and long-term energy needs. In skeletal muscle, THs modulate energy metabolism in pathophysiological conditions. Indeed, hypo- and hyperthyroidism are leading causes of muscle weakness and strength; however, the metabolic pathways underlying these effects are still poorly understood. Using molecular, biochemical, and isotope-tracing approaches combined with mass spectrometry and denervation experiments, we find that THs regulate glutamine metabolism and anaplerotic fluxes by up-regulating the glutamate pyruvate transaminase 2 (GPT2) gene. In humans, GPT2 autosomal recessive mutations cause a neurological syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, microcephaly, and progressive motor symptoms. Here, we demonstrate a role of the TH/GPT2 axis in skeletal muscle in which it regulates muscle weight and fiber diameter in resting and atrophic conditions and results in protection from muscle loss during atrophy. These results describe an anabolic route by which THs rewire glutamine metabolism toward the maintenance of muscle mass.

Thyroid hormone regulates glutamine metabolism and anaplerotic fluxes by inducing mitochondrial glutamate aminotransferase GPT2

Cicatiello A. G.
Primo
;
Sagliocchi S.;Nappi A.;Di Cicco E.;Miro C.;Murolo M.;Stornaiuolo M.;Dentice M.
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

Thyroid hormones (THs) are key metabolic regulators coordinating short- and long-term energy needs. In skeletal muscle, THs modulate energy metabolism in pathophysiological conditions. Indeed, hypo- and hyperthyroidism are leading causes of muscle weakness and strength; however, the metabolic pathways underlying these effects are still poorly understood. Using molecular, biochemical, and isotope-tracing approaches combined with mass spectrometry and denervation experiments, we find that THs regulate glutamine metabolism and anaplerotic fluxes by up-regulating the glutamate pyruvate transaminase 2 (GPT2) gene. In humans, GPT2 autosomal recessive mutations cause a neurological syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, microcephaly, and progressive motor symptoms. Here, we demonstrate a role of the TH/GPT2 axis in skeletal muscle in which it regulates muscle weight and fiber diameter in resting and atrophic conditions and results in protection from muscle loss during atrophy. These results describe an anabolic route by which THs rewire glutamine metabolism toward the maintenance of muscle mass.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/878140
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