Metabolomics, lipidomics, and the study of cellular metabolism are gaining increasing interest particularly in the field of immunology, since the activation and effector functions of immune cells are profoundly controlled by changes in cellular metabolic asset. Among the different techniques that can be used for the evaluation of cellular metabolism, the Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer allows the real time measurement of both glycolytic and mitochondrial respiration pathways in cells of interest, through the assessment of extracellular acidification and oxygen consumption rate. Metabolomics, on the other hand, is the high-throughput analysis of metabolites, i.e., the substrates, intermediates, and products of cellular metabolism, starting from biofluids, cells or tissues. The metabolome does not include lipids as their properties are different from water-soluble metabolites and are classified under the lipidome. Lipidomics analysis allows the identification and quantification of lipid species. Metabolomics and lipidomics are currently performed with mass-spectrometry coupled with liquid or gas chromatography (LC-MS or GC-MS) and/or nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR). Here we describe the protocol for the evaluation of metabolic rate, metabolomics, and lipidomics in T cells, examining the detailed experimental approaches.
Metabolomics, lipidomics, and immunometabolism / Carbone, F.; Bruzzaniti, S.; Fusco, C.; Colamatteo, A.; Micillo, T.; De Candia, P.; Bonacina, F.; Norata, G. D.; Matarese, G.. - 2285:(2021), pp. 319-328. [10.1007/978-1-0716-1311-5_24]