In this work, we assess the potential of waste products of Phlegrean mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), namely seeds and peel, to be reutilized as a source of bioactive compounds beneficial for the human diet. Starting from the evidence that the by-products of this specific cultivar are the most powerful sources of antioxidants compared to pulp, we have investigated if and how the bioactive compounds in peel and seeds may be affected by fruit ripening. Three stages of fruit ripening have been considered in our study: unripe fruits = UF, semi-ripe fruits = SRF, ripe fruits = RF. The overall results indicated that RF showed the highest concentration of antioxidants. Among fruit components, peel was the richest in total antioxidant capacity, total polyphenol content, total flavonoids, total chlorophylls and carotenoids, while seeds exhibited the highest concentration of total condensed tannins and ascorbic acid. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay indicates the occurrence, in peel extracts, of 28 phenolic compounds, mainly flavonoids (FLs); in seeds, 34 derivatives were present in the first stage (UF), which diminish to 24 during the ripening process. Our data indicated that the content of phytochemicals in citrus strongly varies among the fruit components and depends on the ripening stage. The higher antioxidant activity of peel and seeds, especially in RF, encourage a potential use of by-products of this specific citrus cultivar for industrial or pharmacological applications. However, to maximize the occurrence of desired bioactive compounds, it is important also to consider the ripening stage at which fruits must be collected.

Antioxidant Properties of Pulp, Peel and Seeds of Phlegrean Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) at Different Stages of Fruit Ripening

Giulia Costanzo
Primo
;
Ermenegilda Vitale
Secondo
;
Maria Rosaria Iesce
Conceptualization
;
Daniele Naviglio;Angela Amoresano;Michele Spinelli;Martina Ciaravolo;Carmen Arena
Ultimo
Conceptualization
2022

Abstract

In this work, we assess the potential of waste products of Phlegrean mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), namely seeds and peel, to be reutilized as a source of bioactive compounds beneficial for the human diet. Starting from the evidence that the by-products of this specific cultivar are the most powerful sources of antioxidants compared to pulp, we have investigated if and how the bioactive compounds in peel and seeds may be affected by fruit ripening. Three stages of fruit ripening have been considered in our study: unripe fruits = UF, semi-ripe fruits = SRF, ripe fruits = RF. The overall results indicated that RF showed the highest concentration of antioxidants. Among fruit components, peel was the richest in total antioxidant capacity, total polyphenol content, total flavonoids, total chlorophylls and carotenoids, while seeds exhibited the highest concentration of total condensed tannins and ascorbic acid. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay indicates the occurrence, in peel extracts, of 28 phenolic compounds, mainly flavonoids (FLs); in seeds, 34 derivatives were present in the first stage (UF), which diminish to 24 during the ripening process. Our data indicated that the content of phytochemicals in citrus strongly varies among the fruit components and depends on the ripening stage. The higher antioxidant activity of peel and seeds, especially in RF, encourage a potential use of by-products of this specific citrus cultivar for industrial or pharmacological applications. However, to maximize the occurrence of desired bioactive compounds, it is important also to consider the ripening stage at which fruits must be collected.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11588/867561
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