Significant release of rare earth elements (REEs) into the environment is mainly due to active or abandoned mining sites, but their presence is globally increasing due to their use in several industrial sectors. The effects on primary producers as Raphidocelis subcapitata are still limited. This research focused on La and Ce as the two most widespread REEs that can be currently found up to hundreds of μg/L in water and wastewater. Microalgae were exposed to La and Ce for 3 days (pH = 7.8) (short-term exposure) to derive the effective concentrations inhibiting the growth on 10% (EC10) of the exposed population. EC10 values (0.5 mg/L of La and 0.4 mg/L of Ce) were used for the 28 days long-term exposure (renewal test) to observe after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days on a multi-endpoint basis microalgae growth inhibition (GI), biomarkers of stress (reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT)), and bioconcentration. Results evidenced that La and Ce EC10 increased GI (day 28) up to 38% and 28%, respectively. ROS, CAT, and SOD activities showed differential responses from day 7 to day 14, 21, and 28, suggesting, in most of the cases, that La and Ce effects were counteracted (i.e., being the values at day 28 not significantly different, p > 0.05, from the relative negative controls), except for La-related ROS activities. La and Ce significantly bioconcentrated in microalgae populations up to 2- and 5-fold (i.e., at day 28 compared to day 7), in that order. Bioconcentrated La and Ce were up to 3157 and 1232 μg/g dry weight (day 28), respectively. These results suggested that low La and Ce concentrations can be slightly toxic to R. subcapitata having the potential to be bioaccumulated and potentially transferred along the food web.

Long-term multi-endpoint exposure of the microalga Raphidocelis subcapitata to lanthanum and cerium

Siciliano A.
Primo
;
Guida M.
Secondo
;
Serafini S.;Galdiero E.;Carfagna S.;Salbitani G.;Lofrano G.;Padilla Suarez E. G.;Brouziotis A. A.;Trifuoggi M.;Liguori R.;Fabbricino M.
Penultimo
;
Libralato G.
Ultimo
2021

Abstract

Significant release of rare earth elements (REEs) into the environment is mainly due to active or abandoned mining sites, but their presence is globally increasing due to their use in several industrial sectors. The effects on primary producers as Raphidocelis subcapitata are still limited. This research focused on La and Ce as the two most widespread REEs that can be currently found up to hundreds of μg/L in water and wastewater. Microalgae were exposed to La and Ce for 3 days (pH = 7.8) (short-term exposure) to derive the effective concentrations inhibiting the growth on 10% (EC10) of the exposed population. EC10 values (0.5 mg/L of La and 0.4 mg/L of Ce) were used for the 28 days long-term exposure (renewal test) to observe after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days on a multi-endpoint basis microalgae growth inhibition (GI), biomarkers of stress (reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT)), and bioconcentration. Results evidenced that La and Ce EC10 increased GI (day 28) up to 38% and 28%, respectively. ROS, CAT, and SOD activities showed differential responses from day 7 to day 14, 21, and 28, suggesting, in most of the cases, that La and Ce effects were counteracted (i.e., being the values at day 28 not significantly different, p > 0.05, from the relative negative controls), except for La-related ROS activities. La and Ce significantly bioconcentrated in microalgae populations up to 2- and 5-fold (i.e., at day 28 compared to day 7), in that order. Bioconcentrated La and Ce were up to 3157 and 1232 μg/g dry weight (day 28), respectively. These results suggested that low La and Ce concentrations can be slightly toxic to R. subcapitata having the potential to be bioaccumulated and potentially transferred along the food web.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/856796
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