Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) remains one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Although the age- and gender-adjusted incidence of ACS is decreasing, the mortality associated with this condition remains high, especially 1-year after the acute event. Several studies demonstrated that PCSK9 inhibitors therapy determine a significant reduction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in post-ACS patients, through a process of plaque modification, by intervening in lipid metabolism and platelet aggregation and finally determining an improvement in endothelial function. In the EVACS (Evolocumab in Acute Coronary Syndrome) study, evolocumab allows >90% of patients to achieve LDL-C < 55 mg/dL according to ESC/EAS guidelines compared to 11% of patients who only receive statins. In the EVOPACS (EVOlocumab for Early Reduction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol Levels in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes) study, evolocumab determined LDL levels reduction of 40.7% (95% CI: 45.2 to 36.2; p < 0.001) and allowed 95.7% of patients to achieve LDL levels <55 mg/dL. In ODYSSEY Outcome trial, alirocumab reduced the overall risk of MACE by 15% (HR = 0.85; CI: 0.78-0.93; p = 0.0003), with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.85; CI: 0.73-0.98: nominal p = 0026), and fewer deaths for coronary heart disease (CHD) compared to the control group (HR = 0.92; CI: 0.76-1.11; p = 0.38). The present review aimed at describing the beneficial effect of PCSK9 inhibitors therapy early after ACS in reducing LDL circulating levels (LDL-C) and the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, which was very high in the first year and persists higher later after the acute event.

Inhibitors of Protein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin 9 (PCSK9) and Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS): The State-of-the-Art

Iannuzzo, Gabriella
;
Gentile, Marco;Mallardo, Vania;Di Lorenzo, Anna;Merone, Pasquale;Cuomo, Gianluigi;Pacileo, Mario;Vigorito, Carlo;Giallauria, Francesco
2021

Abstract

Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) remains one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Although the age- and gender-adjusted incidence of ACS is decreasing, the mortality associated with this condition remains high, especially 1-year after the acute event. Several studies demonstrated that PCSK9 inhibitors therapy determine a significant reduction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in post-ACS patients, through a process of plaque modification, by intervening in lipid metabolism and platelet aggregation and finally determining an improvement in endothelial function. In the EVACS (Evolocumab in Acute Coronary Syndrome) study, evolocumab allows >90% of patients to achieve LDL-C < 55 mg/dL according to ESC/EAS guidelines compared to 11% of patients who only receive statins. In the EVOPACS (EVOlocumab for Early Reduction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol Levels in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes) study, evolocumab determined LDL levels reduction of 40.7% (95% CI: 45.2 to 36.2; p < 0.001) and allowed 95.7% of patients to achieve LDL levels <55 mg/dL. In ODYSSEY Outcome trial, alirocumab reduced the overall risk of MACE by 15% (HR = 0.85; CI: 0.78-0.93; p = 0.0003), with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.85; CI: 0.73-0.98: nominal p = 0026), and fewer deaths for coronary heart disease (CHD) compared to the control group (HR = 0.92; CI: 0.76-1.11; p = 0.38). The present review aimed at describing the beneficial effect of PCSK9 inhibitors therapy early after ACS in reducing LDL circulating levels (LDL-C) and the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, which was very high in the first year and persists higher later after the acute event.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/850952
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