In metal cutting, the present tendency is toward achieving increased material removal rate with high degrees of automation and without close human supervision. This requires very reliable machining processes. The normal practical variations of the input parameters of the machining process, for example the inherent variation in work material properties, must be taken care of by the robustness of the system or by suitable monitoring and adaptive control processes, avoiding unacceptable results. It is widely accepted that the predictability of surface finish, workpiece accuracy, and tool life are of prime importance in general, much less attention is given to chip control, which means the occurrence of acceptable chip forms which can be evacuated easily and reliably from the working zone. Thus, the basic functional elements of chip control are efficient breaking and effective removal of chips. Also, the chip formation and breaking aspect is very significant in machining, since problems with surface finish, workpiece accuracy, and tool life can be caused even by minor changes in the chip formation process.
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