Palladium (Pd) is a precious metal that, together with iridium (Ir), platinum (Pt), rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (Ru), and osmium (Os), belongs to the platinum group elements (PGEs). Pd is one of the rarest elements in the earth's crust and its main ore deposits are found in the Russian Federation and South Africa. The unique chemical and physical properties of palladium account for its widespread use in many industrial sectors like chemical and petroleum industry, production of automobile catalysts, electronic devices, dental applications, and fine jewelry. A significant increase in the industrial use of Pd in the past 20 years has resulted in higher environmental levels of this metal, particularly in road dust, airborne particulate, soil, and groundwater tables. Therefore, it is clear that in recent years there has been a notable increase in Pd exposure both in the general population and in occupationally exposed subjects. Exposure to Pd can cause acute toxicity or hypersensitivity with respiratory symptoms, urticaria and, less frequently, contact dermatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that, among metals, Pd ions are one of the most frequent reacting sensitizers. This effect on the immune system represents the most important health hazard to humans.

Palladium: Exposure, Uses, and Human Health Effects

Iavicoli Ivo;Fontana L.;
2011

Abstract

Palladium (Pd) is a precious metal that, together with iridium (Ir), platinum (Pt), rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (Ru), and osmium (Os), belongs to the platinum group elements (PGEs). Pd is one of the rarest elements in the earth's crust and its main ore deposits are found in the Russian Federation and South Africa. The unique chemical and physical properties of palladium account for its widespread use in many industrial sectors like chemical and petroleum industry, production of automobile catalysts, electronic devices, dental applications, and fine jewelry. A significant increase in the industrial use of Pd in the past 20 years has resulted in higher environmental levels of this metal, particularly in road dust, airborne particulate, soil, and groundwater tables. Therefore, it is clear that in recent years there has been a notable increase in Pd exposure both in the general population and in occupationally exposed subjects. Exposure to Pd can cause acute toxicity or hypersensitivity with respiratory symptoms, urticaria and, less frequently, contact dermatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that, among metals, Pd ions are one of the most frequent reacting sensitizers. This effect on the immune system represents the most important health hazard to humans.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11588/777790
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 17
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact