New strategies to characterize the effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) based on omics technologies are emerging. However, given the intricate interplay of multiple regulatory layers, the study of a single molecular species in exposed biological systems might not allow the needed granularity to successfully identify the pathways of toxicity (PoT) and, hence, portraying adverse outcome pathways (AOPs). Moreover, the intrinsic diversity of different cell types composing the exposed organs and tissues in living organisms poses a problem when transferring in vivo experimentation into cell-based in vitro systems. To overcome these limitations, we have profiled genome-wide DNA methylation, mRNA and microRNA expression in three human cell lines representative of relevant cell types of the respiratory system, A549, BEAS-2B and THP-1, exposed to a low dose of ten carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) for 48 h. We applied advanced data integration and modelling techniques in order to build comprehensive regulatory and functional maps of the CNM effects in each cell type. We observed that different cell types respond differently to the same CNM exposure even at concentrations exerting similar phenotypic effects. Furthermore, we linked patterns of genomic and epigenomic regulation to intrinsic properties of CNM. Interestingly, DNA methylation and microRNA expression only partially explain the mechanism of action (MOA) of CNMs. Taken together, our results strongly support the implementation of approaches based on multi-omics screenings on multiple tissues/cell types, along with systems biology-based multi-variate data modelling, in order to build more accurate AOPs.
Multi-omics analysis of ten carbon nanomaterials effects highlights cell type specific patterns of molecular regulation and adaptation / Scala, G.; Kinaret, P.; Marwah, V.; Sund, J.; Fortino, V.; Greco, D.. - In: NANOIMPACT. - ISSN 2452-0748. - 11:(2018), pp. 99-108. [10.1016/j.impact.2018.05.003]