Food dyes, or color additives, are chemicals added to industrial food products and in domestic cooking to improve the perceived flavor and attractiveness. Of natural and synthetic origin, their safety has been long discussed, and concern for human safety is now clearly manifested by warnings added on products labels. Limited attention, however, has been dedicated to the effects of these compounds on aquatic flora and fauna. For this reason, the toxicity of four different commercially available food dyes (cochineal red E120, Ponceau red E124, tartrazine yellow E102 and blue Patent E131) was assessed on three different model organisms, namely Cucumis sativus, Artemia salina and Danio rerio that occupy diverse positions in the trophic pyramid. The evidence collected indicates that food dyes may target several organs and functions, depending on the species. C. sativus rate of germination was increased by E102, while root/shoot ratio was ∼20% reduced by E102, E120 and E124, seed total chlorophylls and carotenoids were 15–20% increased by E120 and 131, and total antioxidant activity was ∼25% reduced by all dyes. Mortality and low mobility of A. salina nauplii were increased by up to 50% in presence of E124, E102 and E131, while the nauplii phototactic response was significantly altered by E102, E120 and E124. Two to four-fold increases in the hatching percentages at 48 h were induced by E124, E102 and E131 on D. rerio, associated with the occurrence of 20% of embryos showing developmental defects. These results demonstrated that the food dyes examined are far from being safe for the aquatic organisms as well as land organisms exposed during watering with contaminated water. The overall information obtained gives a realistic snapshot of the potential pollution risk exerted by food dyes and of the different organism' ability to overcome the stress induced by contamination.

Effects of four food dyes on development of three model species, Cucumis sativus, Artemia salina and Danio rerio: Assessment of potential risk for the environment

Motta C. M.
Primo
;
Arena C.
;
Capriello T.;Vitale E.;Agnisola C.;Tizzano M.;Avallone B.
Penultimo
;
Ferrandino I.
Ultimo
2019

Abstract

Food dyes, or color additives, are chemicals added to industrial food products and in domestic cooking to improve the perceived flavor and attractiveness. Of natural and synthetic origin, their safety has been long discussed, and concern for human safety is now clearly manifested by warnings added on products labels. Limited attention, however, has been dedicated to the effects of these compounds on aquatic flora and fauna. For this reason, the toxicity of four different commercially available food dyes (cochineal red E120, Ponceau red E124, tartrazine yellow E102 and blue Patent E131) was assessed on three different model organisms, namely Cucumis sativus, Artemia salina and Danio rerio that occupy diverse positions in the trophic pyramid. The evidence collected indicates that food dyes may target several organs and functions, depending on the species. C. sativus rate of germination was increased by E102, while root/shoot ratio was ∼20% reduced by E102, E120 and E124, seed total chlorophylls and carotenoids were 15–20% increased by E120 and 131, and total antioxidant activity was ∼25% reduced by all dyes. Mortality and low mobility of A. salina nauplii were increased by up to 50% in presence of E124, E102 and E131, while the nauplii phototactic response was significantly altered by E102, E120 and E124. Two to four-fold increases in the hatching percentages at 48 h were induced by E124, E102 and E131 on D. rerio, associated with the occurrence of 20% of embryos showing developmental defects. These results demonstrated that the food dyes examined are far from being safe for the aquatic organisms as well as land organisms exposed during watering with contaminated water. The overall information obtained gives a realistic snapshot of the potential pollution risk exerted by food dyes and of the different organism' ability to overcome the stress induced by contamination.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11588/761126
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