Metal contamination in the environment is one of the persistent global environmental problems and their adverse health effects have been well docu - mented. Heavy metals can be found in various forms, including fine particles, liquid and gas. On the contrary, metal resource depletion also has accelerated dramatically during the twentieth century owing to advances in industrial engineering and sci - ences, which require large amounts of raw materials. Therefore, researchers have started to focus on developing technologies which can remove metals from the envi - ronment and recover them to reuse as material. In this chapter, the source and characteristics of several metal contaminated waste streams, recent developments and the technical feasibility of applying physico-chemical and biological technologies/processes to the treatment of waste - water polluted with heavy metals are reviewed. The source of metal pollution will be demonstrated from excavation to end of life product (cradle to grave), while particular technologies such as adsorption, electrocoagulation, biological sulphide precipitation and phytoremediation will be focused on as solutions for heavy metal contamination of the environment.
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