Most studies investigating the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) focused on the effect of size, whereas exposure concentration and duration remained poorly understood. In this study, the effect of acute and sub-acute exposures of ZnO NPs on Zn compartmentalization and biomarkers’ expression were investigated in Rutilus rutilus caspicus (Caspian roach) considering various exposure scenarios: i) the assessment of the concentration-response curves and median lethal concentration (LC50); ii) the assessment of the effects of organisms exposed at LC50 value and one tenth of LC50 value of ZnO NPs suspensions for 4 d and 28 d, respectively; iii) the assessment of 14 d depuration period. Same concentrations of ZnSO4 were investigated. The highest Zn accumulation was detected in gill after sub-acute exposure (4.8 mg/L; 28 d) followed by liver, kidney and muscle. In gill, liver and muscle, Zn from Zn NPs accumulated higher concentrations. Depuration (14 d) decreased Zn content in each organ, but no complete removal occurred except for muscle. Biomarkers’ activity was significantly over expressed after treatments, but depuration brought back their values to background levels and most effects were related to acute concentrations (48 mg/L; 4 d) and in presence of ZnSO4. Histopathological analyses showed that the exposure to ZnO NPs increased lesions in gill, liver and kidney, with a direct proportionality between alterations and Zn accumulated in the target organs. After depuration, lesions regressed for both ZnO NPs and ZnSO4, but not in a complete way. These data could contribute to increase the knowledge about ZnO NPs risk assessment in aquatic vertebrates, suggesting that the size of ZnO NPs can influence biomarker and histopathological effects.

Effects of ZnO nanoparticles in the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) / Khosravi-Katuli, K.; Lofrano, G.; Pak Nezhad, H.; Giorgio, A.; Guida, M.; Aliberti, F.; Siciliano, A.; Carotenuto, M.; Galdiero, E.; Rahimi, E.; Libralato, G.. - In: SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT. - ISSN 0048-9697. - 626:(2018), pp. 30-41. [10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.01.085]

Effects of ZnO nanoparticles in the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus)

Lofrano, G.;Giorgio, A.;Guida, M.;Aliberti, F.;Siciliano, A.;Galdiero, E.;Libralato, G.
2018

Abstract

Most studies investigating the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) focused on the effect of size, whereas exposure concentration and duration remained poorly understood. In this study, the effect of acute and sub-acute exposures of ZnO NPs on Zn compartmentalization and biomarkers’ expression were investigated in Rutilus rutilus caspicus (Caspian roach) considering various exposure scenarios: i) the assessment of the concentration-response curves and median lethal concentration (LC50); ii) the assessment of the effects of organisms exposed at LC50 value and one tenth of LC50 value of ZnO NPs suspensions for 4 d and 28 d, respectively; iii) the assessment of 14 d depuration period. Same concentrations of ZnSO4 were investigated. The highest Zn accumulation was detected in gill after sub-acute exposure (4.8 mg/L; 28 d) followed by liver, kidney and muscle. In gill, liver and muscle, Zn from Zn NPs accumulated higher concentrations. Depuration (14 d) decreased Zn content in each organ, but no complete removal occurred except for muscle. Biomarkers’ activity was significantly over expressed after treatments, but depuration brought back their values to background levels and most effects were related to acute concentrations (48 mg/L; 4 d) and in presence of ZnSO4. Histopathological analyses showed that the exposure to ZnO NPs increased lesions in gill, liver and kidney, with a direct proportionality between alterations and Zn accumulated in the target organs. After depuration, lesions regressed for both ZnO NPs and ZnSO4, but not in a complete way. These data could contribute to increase the knowledge about ZnO NPs risk assessment in aquatic vertebrates, suggesting that the size of ZnO NPs can influence biomarker and histopathological effects.
2018
Effects of ZnO nanoparticles in the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) / Khosravi-Katuli, K.; Lofrano, G.; Pak Nezhad, H.; Giorgio, A.; Guida, M.; Aliberti, F.; Siciliano, A.; Carotenuto, M.; Galdiero, E.; Rahimi, E.; Libralato, G.. - In: SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT. - ISSN 0048-9697. - 626:(2018), pp. 30-41. [10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.01.085]
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