Aquaporins (AQPs) play a pivotal role in gut homeostasis since their distribution and function is modulated both in physiological and in pathophysiological conditions. The transport of water and solutes through gut epithelia is essential for osmoregulation and digestive and absorptive functions. This passage is regulated by different AQP isoforms and characterized by their peculiar distribution in the gastrointestinal tract. To date, AQP localization has been identified in the gut and associated organs of several mammalian species by different techniques (immunohistochemical, western blotting, and RT-PCR). The present review describes the modulation of AQP expression, distribution, and function in gut pathophysiology. At the same time, the comparative description of AQP in animal species sheds light on the full range of AQP functions and the screening of their activity as transport modulators, diagnostic biomarkers, and drug targets. Moreover, the phenotype of knockout mice for several AQPs and their compensatory role and the use of specific AQP inhibitors have been also reviewed. The reported data could be useful to design future research in both basic and clinical fields.

Aquaporins in health and disease: An overview focusing on the gut of different species

Pelagalli, A.
;
Squillacioti, C.;Mirabella, N.;Meli, R.
2016

Abstract

Aquaporins (AQPs) play a pivotal role in gut homeostasis since their distribution and function is modulated both in physiological and in pathophysiological conditions. The transport of water and solutes through gut epithelia is essential for osmoregulation and digestive and absorptive functions. This passage is regulated by different AQP isoforms and characterized by their peculiar distribution in the gastrointestinal tract. To date, AQP localization has been identified in the gut and associated organs of several mammalian species by different techniques (immunohistochemical, western blotting, and RT-PCR). The present review describes the modulation of AQP expression, distribution, and function in gut pathophysiology. At the same time, the comparative description of AQP in animal species sheds light on the full range of AQP functions and the screening of their activity as transport modulators, diagnostic biomarkers, and drug targets. Moreover, the phenotype of knockout mice for several AQPs and their compensatory role and the use of specific AQP inhibitors have been also reviewed. The reported data could be useful to design future research in both basic and clinical fields.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/645140
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