BioMedical Engineering Online Volume 14, Issue 1, August 14, 2015, Article number 78 Open Access Individual identification via electrocardiogram analysis (Review) Fratini, A.a , Sansone, M.b , Bifulco, P.b , Cesarelli, M.b a Aston University, School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, United Kingdom b University Federico II of Naples, Department of Electronic Engineering and Information Technologies, Via Claudio, 21, Naples, Italy View references (142) Abstract Background: During last decade the use of ECG recordings in biometric recognition studies has increased. ECG characteristics made it suitable for subject identification: it is unique, present in all living individuals, and hard to forge. However, in spite of the great number of approaches found in literature, no agreement exists on the most appropriate methodology. This study aimed at providing a survey of the techniques used so far in ECG-based human identification. Specifically, a pattern recognition perspective is here proposed providing a unifying framework to appreciate previous studies and, hopefully, guide future research. Methods: We searched for papers on the subject from the earliest available date using relevant electronic databases (Medline, IEEEXplore, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge). The following terms were used in different combinations: electrocardiogram, ECG, human identification, biometric, authentication and individual variability. The electronic sources were last searched on 1st March 2015. In our selection we included published research on peer-reviewed journals, books chapters and conferences proceedings. The search was performed for English language documents. Results: 100 pertinent papers were found. Number of subjects involved in the journal studies ranges from 10 to 502, age from 16 to 86, male and female subjects are generally present. Number of analysed leads varies as well as the recording conditions. Identification performance differs widely as well as verification rate. Many studies refer to publicly available databases (Physionet ECG databases repository) while others rely on proprietary recordings making difficult them to compare. As a measure of overall accuracy we computed a weighted average of the identification rate and equal error rate in authentication scenarios. Identification rate resulted equal to 94.95 % while the equal error rate equal to 0.92 %. Conclusions: Biometric recognition is a mature field of research. Nevertheless, the use of physiological signals features, such as the ECG traits, needs further improvements. ECG features have the potential to be used in daily activities such as access control and patient handling as well as in wearable electronics applications. However, some barriers still limit its growth. Further analysis should be addressed on the use of single lead recordings and the study of features which are not dependent on the recording sites (e.g. fingers, hand palms). Moreover, it is expected that new techniques will be developed using fiducials and non-fiducial based features in order to catch the best of both approaches. ECG recognition in pathological subjects is also worth of additional investigations.

Individual identification via electrocardiogram analysis / Fratini, Antonio; Sansone, Mario; Bifulco, Paolo; Cesarelli, Mario. - In: BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING ONLINE. - ISSN 1475-925X. - 14:1(2015), p. 78. [10.1186/s12938-015-0072-y]

Individual identification via electrocardiogram analysis

FRATINI, Antonio;SANSONE, MARIO;BIFULCO, PAOLO;CESARELLI, MARIO
2015

Abstract

BioMedical Engineering Online Volume 14, Issue 1, August 14, 2015, Article number 78 Open Access Individual identification via electrocardiogram analysis (Review) Fratini, A.a , Sansone, M.b , Bifulco, P.b , Cesarelli, M.b a Aston University, School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, United Kingdom b University Federico II of Naples, Department of Electronic Engineering and Information Technologies, Via Claudio, 21, Naples, Italy View references (142) Abstract Background: During last decade the use of ECG recordings in biometric recognition studies has increased. ECG characteristics made it suitable for subject identification: it is unique, present in all living individuals, and hard to forge. However, in spite of the great number of approaches found in literature, no agreement exists on the most appropriate methodology. This study aimed at providing a survey of the techniques used so far in ECG-based human identification. Specifically, a pattern recognition perspective is here proposed providing a unifying framework to appreciate previous studies and, hopefully, guide future research. Methods: We searched for papers on the subject from the earliest available date using relevant electronic databases (Medline, IEEEXplore, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge). The following terms were used in different combinations: electrocardiogram, ECG, human identification, biometric, authentication and individual variability. The electronic sources were last searched on 1st March 2015. In our selection we included published research on peer-reviewed journals, books chapters and conferences proceedings. The search was performed for English language documents. Results: 100 pertinent papers were found. Number of subjects involved in the journal studies ranges from 10 to 502, age from 16 to 86, male and female subjects are generally present. Number of analysed leads varies as well as the recording conditions. Identification performance differs widely as well as verification rate. Many studies refer to publicly available databases (Physionet ECG databases repository) while others rely on proprietary recordings making difficult them to compare. As a measure of overall accuracy we computed a weighted average of the identification rate and equal error rate in authentication scenarios. Identification rate resulted equal to 94.95 % while the equal error rate equal to 0.92 %. Conclusions: Biometric recognition is a mature field of research. Nevertheless, the use of physiological signals features, such as the ECG traits, needs further improvements. ECG features have the potential to be used in daily activities such as access control and patient handling as well as in wearable electronics applications. However, some barriers still limit its growth. Further analysis should be addressed on the use of single lead recordings and the study of features which are not dependent on the recording sites (e.g. fingers, hand palms). Moreover, it is expected that new techniques will be developed using fiducials and non-fiducial based features in order to catch the best of both approaches. ECG recognition in pathological subjects is also worth of additional investigations.
2015
Individual identification via electrocardiogram analysis / Fratini, Antonio; Sansone, Mario; Bifulco, Paolo; Cesarelli, Mario. - In: BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING ONLINE. - ISSN 1475-925X. - 14:1(2015), p. 78. [10.1186/s12938-015-0072-y]
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
2015-fratini.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Documento in Post-print
Licenza: Dominio pubblico
Dimensione 1.54 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.54 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/644830
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 110
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 88
social impact