Polypharmacology, a new paradigm in drug discovery that focuses on multi-target drugs (MTDs), has potential application for drug repurposing, the process of finding new uses for existing approved drugs, prediction of off-target toxicities and rational design of MTDs. In this scenario, computational strategies have demonstrated great potential in predicting polypharmacology and in facilitating drug repurposing. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of various computational approaches that enable the prediction and analysis of in vitro and in vivo drug-response phenotypes and outline their potential for drug discovery. We give an outlook on the latest advances in rational design of MTDs and discuss possible future directions of algorithm development in this field.
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