Age at onset of diagnostic motor manifestations in Huntington disease (HD) is strongly correlated with an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat. The length of the normal CAG repeat allele has been reported also to influence age at onset, in interaction with the expanded allele. Due to profound implications for disease mechanism and modification, we tested whether the normal allele, interaction between the expanded and normal alleles, or presence of a second expanded allele affects age at onset of HD motor signs.We modeled natural log-transformed age at onset as a function of CAG repeat lengths of expanded and normal alleles and their interaction by linear regression.An apparently significant effect of interaction on age at motor onset among 4,068 subjects was dependent on a single outlier data point. A rigorous statistical analysis with a well-behaved dataset that conformed to the fundamental assumptions of linear regression (e.g., constant variance and normally distributed error) revealed significance only for the expanded CAG repeat, with no effect of the normal CAG repeat. Ten subjects with 2 expanded alleles showed an age at motor onset consistent with the length of the larger expanded allele.Normal allele CAG length, interaction between expanded and normal alleles, and presence of a second expanded allele do not influence age at onset of motor manifestations, indicating that the rate of HD pathogenesis leading to motor diagnosis is determined by a completely dominant action of the longest expanded allele and as yet unidentified genetic or environmental factors.

CAG repeat expansion in Huntington disease determines age at onset in a fully dominant fashion / Lee, Jm; Ramos, Em; Lee, Jh; Gillis, T; Mysore, Js; Hayden, Mr; Warby, Sc; Morrison, P; Nance, M; Ross, Ca; Margolis, Rl; Squitieri, F; Orobello, S; Di Donato, S; Gomez Tortosa, E; Ayuso, C; Suchowersky, O; Trent, Rj; Mccusker, E; Novelletto, A; Frontali, M; Jones, R; Ashizawa, T; Frank, S; Saint Hilaire, Mh; Hersch, Sm; Rosas, Hd; Lucente, D; Harrison, Mb; Zanko, A; Abramson, Rk; Marder, K; Sequeiros, J; Paulsen, Js; PREDICT HD study of the Huntington Study Group, Landwehrmeyer GB; REGISTRY study of the European Huntington's Disease Network, Myers RH; HD MAPS Study, Group; Macdonald, Me; Gusella, Jf; CollaboratorsDurr A, COHORT study of the H. S. G.; Rosenblatt, A; Frati, L; Perlman, S; Conneally, Pm; Klimek, Ml; Diggin, M; Hadzi, T; Duckett, A; Ahmed, A; Allen, P; Ames, D; Anderson, C; Anderson, K; Anderson, K; Andrews, T; Ashburner, J; Axelson, E; Aylward, E; Barker, Ra; Barth, K; Barton, S; Baynes, K; Bea, A; Beall, E; Beg, Mf; Beglinger, Lj; Biglan, K; Bjork, K; Blanchard, S; Bockholt, J; Bommu, Sr; Brossman, B; Burrows, M; Calhoun, V; Carlozzi, N; Chesire, A; Chiu, E; Chua, P; Connell, Rj; Connor, C; Corey Bloom, J; Craufurd, D; Cross, S; Cysique, L; Santos, Rd; Davis, J; Decolongon, J; Dipietro, A; Doucette, N; Downing, N; Dudler, A; Dunn, S; Ecker, D; Epping, Ea; Erickson, D; Erwin, C; Evans, K; Factor, Sa; Farias, S; Fatas, M; Fiedorowicz, J; Fullam, R; Furtado, S; Garde, Mb; Gehl, C; Geschwind, Md; Goh, A; Gooblar, J; Goodman, A; Griffith, J; Groves, M; Guttman, M; Hamilton, J; Harrington, D; Harris, G; Heaton, Rk; Helmer, K; Henneberry, M; Hershey, T; Herwig, K; Howard, E; Hunter, C; Jankovic, J; Johnson, H; Johnson, A; Jones, K; Juhl, A; Kim, Ey; Kimble, M; King, P; Klimek, Ml; Klöppel, S; Koenig, K; Komiti, A; Kumar, R; Langbehn, D; Leavitt, B; Leserman, A; Lim, K; Lipe, H; Lowe, M; Magnotta, Va; Mallonee, Wm; Mans, N; Marietta, J; Marshall, F; Martin, W; Mason, S; Matheson, K; Matson, W; Mazzoni, P; Mcdowell, W; Miedzybrodzka, Z; Miller, M; Mills, J; Miracle, D; Montross, K; Moore, D; Mori, S; Moser, Dj; Moskowitz, C; Newman, E; Nopoulos, P; Novak, M; O'Rourke, J; Oakes, D; Ondo, W; Orth, M; Panegyres, P; Pease, K; Perlman, S; Perlmutter, J; Peterson, A; Phillips, M; Pierson, R; Potkin, S; Preston, J; Quaid, K; Radtke, D; Rae, D; Rao, S; Raymond, L; Reading, S; Ready, R; Reece, C; Reilmann, R; Reynolds, N; Richardson, K; Rickards, H; Ro, E; Robinson, R; Rodnitzky, R; Rogers, B; Rosenblatt, A; Rosser, E; Rosser, A; Price, K; Price, K; Ryan, P; Salmon, D; Samii, A; Schumacher, J; Schumacher, J; Sendon, Jl; Shear, P; Sheinberg, A; Shpritz, B; Siedlecki, K; Simpson, Sa; Singer, A; Smith, J; Smith, M; Smith, G; Snyder, P; Song, A; Sran, S; Stephan, K; Stober, J; Sümuth, S; Suter, G; Tabrizi, S; Tempkin, T; Testa, C; Thompson, S; Thomsen, T; Thumma, K; Toga, A; Trautmann, S; Tremont, G; Tupper, D; Turner, J; Uc, E; Vaccarino, A; van Duijn, E; Van Walsem, M; Vik, S; Vonsattel, Jp; Vuletich, E; Warner, T; Wasserman, P; Wassink, T; Waterman, E; Weaver, K; Weir, D; Welsh, C; Werling Witkoske, C; Wesson, M; Westervelt, H; Weydt, P; Wheelock, V; Williams, K; Williams, J; Wodarski, M; Wojcieszek, J; Wood, J; Wood Siverio, C; Wu, S; Yastrubetskaya, O; de Yebenes, Jg; Zhao, Yq; Zimbelman, J; Zschiegner, R; Aaserud, O; Abbruzzese, G; Andrews, T; Andrich, J; Antczak, J; Arran, N; Artiga, Mj; Bachoud Lévi, A; Banaszkiewicz, K; di Poggio, Mb; Bandmann, O; Barbera, Ma; Barker, Ra; Barrero, F; Barth, K; Bas, J; Beister, A; Bentivoglio, Ar; Bertini, E; Biunno, I; Bjørgo, K; Bjørnevoll, I; Bohlen, S; Bonelli, Rm; Bos, R; Bourne, C; Bradbury, A; Brockie, P; Brown, F; Bruno, S; Bryl, A; Buck, A; Burg, S; Burgunder, Jm; Burns, P; Burrows, L; Busquets, N; Busse, M; Calopa, M; Carruesco, Gt; Casado, Ag; Catena, Jl; Chu, C; Ciesielska, A; Clapton, J; Clayton, C; Clenaghan, C; Coelho, M; Connemann, J; Craufurd, D; Crooks, J; Cubillo, Pt; Cubo, E; Curtis, A; DE MICHELE, Giuseppe; De Nicola, A; de Souza, J; de Weert, A; de Yébenes, Jg; Dekker, M; Descals, A; Di Maio, L; Di Pietro, A; Dipple, H; Dose, M; Dumas, Em; Dunnett, S; Ecker, D; Elifani, F; Ellison Rose, L; Elorza, Md; Eschenbach, C; Evans, C; Fairtlough, H; Fannemel, M; Fasano, A; Fenollar, M; Ferrandes, G; Ferreira, Jj; Fillingham, K; Finisterra, Am; Fisher, K; Fletcher, A; Foster, J; Foustanos, I; Frech, Fa; Fullam, R; Fullham, R; Gago, M; García, Rg; García, Ss; Garrett, C; Gellera, C; Gill, P; Ginestroni, A; Golding, C; Goodman, A; Gørvell, P; Grant, J; Griguoli, A; Gross, D; Guedes, L; Bascuñanaguerra, M; Guerra, Mr; Guerrero, R; Guia, Db; Guidubaldi, A; Hallam, C; Hamer, S; Hammer, K; Handley, Oj; Harding, A; Hasholt, L; Hedge, R; Heiberg, A; Heinicke, W; Held, C; Hernanz, Lc; Herranhof, B; Herrera, Cd; Hidding, U; Hiivola, H; Hill, S; Hjermind, Le; Hobson, E; Hoffmann, R; Holl, Ah; Howard, L; Hunt, S; Huson, S; Ialongo, T; Idiago, Jm; Illmann, T; Jachinska, K; Jacopini, G; Jakobsen, O; Jamieson, S; Jamrozik, Z; Janik, P; Johns, N; Jones, L; Jones, U; Jurgens, Ck; Kaelin, A; Kalbarczyk, A; Kershaw, A; Khalil, H; Kieni, J; Klimberg, A; Koivisto, Sp; Koppers, K; Kosinski, Cm; Krawczyk, M; Kremer, B; Krysa, W; Kwiecinski, H; Lahiri, N; Lambeck, J; Lange, H; Laver, F; Leenders, Kl; Levey, J; Leythaeuser, G; Lezius, F; Llesoy, Jr; Löhle, M; López, Cd; Lorenza, F; Loria, G; Magnet, M; Mandich, P; Marchese, R; Marcinkowski, J; Mariotti, C; Mariscal, N; Markova, I; Marquard, R; Martikainen, K; Martínez, Ih; Martínez Descals, A; Martino, T; Mason, S; Mckenzie, S; Mechi, C; Mendes, T; Mestre, T; Middleton, J; Milkereit, E; Miller, J; Miller, J; Minster, S; Möller, Jc; Monza, D; Morales, B; Moreau, Lv; Moreno, Jl; Münchau, A; Murch, A; Nielsen, Je; Niess, A; Nørremølle, A; Novak, M; O'Donovan, K; Orth, M; Otti, D; Owen, M; Padieu, H; Paganini, M; Painold, A; Päivärinta, M; Partington Jones, L; Paterski, L; Paterson, N; Patino, D; Patton, M; Peinemann, A; Peppa, N; Perea, Mf; Peterson, M; Piacentini, S; Piano, C; Pons i., Càrdenas R; Prehn, C; Price, K; Probst, D; Quarrell, O; Quiroga, Pp; Raab, T; Rakowicz, M; Raman, A; Raymond, L; Reilmann, R; Reinante, G; Reisinger, K; Retterstøl, L; Ribaï, P; Riballo, Av; Ribas, Gg; Richter, S; Rickards, H; Rinaldi, C; Rissling, I; Ritchie, S; Rivera, Sv; Robert, Mf; Roca, E; Romano, S; Romoli, Am; Roos, Ra; Røren, N; Rose, S; Rosser, E; Rosser, A; Rossi, F; Rothery, J; Rudzinska, M; Ruíz, Pj; Ruíz, Bg; Russo, Cv; Ryglewicz, D; Saft, C; Salvatore, Elena; Sánchez, V; Sando, Sb; Šašinková, P; Sass, C; Scheibl, M; Schiefer, J; Schlangen, C; Schmidt, S; Schöggl, H; Schrenk, C; Schüpbach, M; Schuierer, M; Sebastián, Ar; Selimbegovic Turkovic, A; Sempolowicz, J; Silva, M; Sitek, E; Slawek, J; Snowden, J; Soleti, F; Soliveri, P; Sollom, A; Soltan, W; Sorbi, S; Sørensen, Sa; Spadaro, M; Städtler, M; Stamm, C; Steiner, T; Stokholm, J; Stokke, B; Stopford, C; Storch, A; Straßburger, K; Stubbe, L; Sulek, A; Szczudlik, A; Tabrizi, S; Taylor, R; Terol, Sd; Thomas, G; Thompson, J; Thomson, A; Tidswell, K; Torres, Mm; Toscano, J; Townhill, J; Trautmann, S; Tucci, T; Tuuha, K; Uhrova, T; Valadas, A; van Hout, Ms; van Oostrom, Jc; van Vugt, Jp; van Walsem, Mr; Vandenberghe, W; Verellen Dumoulin, C; Vergara, Mr; Verstappen, Cc; Verstraelen, N; Viladrich, Cm; Villanueva, C; Wahlström, J; Warner, T; Wehus, R; Weindl, A; Werner, Cj; Westmoreland, L; Weydt, P; Wiedemann, A; Wild, E; Wild, S; Witjes Ané, Mn; Witkowski, G; Wójcik, M; Wolz, M; Wolz, A; Wright, J; Yardumian, P; Yates, S; Yudina, E; Zaremba, J; Zaugg, Sw; Zdzienicka, E; Zielonka, D; Zielonka, E; Zinzi, P; Zittel, S; Zucker, B; Adams, J; Agarwal, P; Antonijevic, I; Beck, C; Chiu, E; Churchyard, A; Colcher, A; Corey Bloom, J; Dorsey, R; Drazinic, C; Dubinsky, R; Duff, K; Factor, S; Foroud, T; Furtado, S; Giuliano, J; Greenamyre, T; Higgins, D; Jankovic, J; Jennings, D; Kang, Uj; Kostyk, S; Kumar, R; Leavitt, B; Ledoux, M; Mallonee, W; Marshall, F; Mohlo, E; Morgan, J; Oakes, D; Panegyres, P; Panisset, M; Perlman, S; Perlmutter, J; Quaid, K; Raymond, L; Revilla, F; Robertson, S; Robottom, B; Sanchez Ramos, J; Scott, B; Shannon, K; Shoulson, I; Singer, C; Tabbal, S; Testa, C; van Kammen, D; Vetter, L; Walker, F; Warner, J; Weiner, W; Wheelock, V; Yastrubetskaya, O; Barton, S; Broyles, J; Clouse, R; Coleman, A; Davis, R; Decolongon, J; Delarosa, J; Deuel, L; Dietrich, S; Dubinsky, H; Eaton, K; Erickson, D; Fitzpatrick, Mj; Frucht, S; Gartner, M; Goldstein, J; Griffith, J; Hickey, C; Hunt, V; Jaglin, J; Klimek, Ml; Lindsay, P; Louis, E; Loy, C; Lucarelli, N; Malarick, K; Martin, A; Mcinnis, R; Moskowitz, C; Muratori, L; Nucifora, F; O'Neill, C; Palao, A; Peavy, G; Quesada, M; Schmidt, A; Segro, V; Sperin, E; Suter, G; Tanev, K; Tempkin, T; Thiede, C; Wasserman, P; Welsh, C; Wesson, M; Zauber, E.. - In: NEUROLOGY. - ISSN 0028-3878. - ELETTRONICO. - 78:(2012), pp. 690-695. [10.1212/WNL.0b013e318249f683]

CAG repeat expansion in Huntington disease determines age at onset in a fully dominant fashion.

DE MICHELE, GIUSEPPE;Russo CV;SALVATORE, ELENA;
2012

Abstract

Age at onset of diagnostic motor manifestations in Huntington disease (HD) is strongly correlated with an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat. The length of the normal CAG repeat allele has been reported also to influence age at onset, in interaction with the expanded allele. Due to profound implications for disease mechanism and modification, we tested whether the normal allele, interaction between the expanded and normal alleles, or presence of a second expanded allele affects age at onset of HD motor signs.We modeled natural log-transformed age at onset as a function of CAG repeat lengths of expanded and normal alleles and their interaction by linear regression.An apparently significant effect of interaction on age at motor onset among 4,068 subjects was dependent on a single outlier data point. A rigorous statistical analysis with a well-behaved dataset that conformed to the fundamental assumptions of linear regression (e.g., constant variance and normally distributed error) revealed significance only for the expanded CAG repeat, with no effect of the normal CAG repeat. Ten subjects with 2 expanded alleles showed an age at motor onset consistent with the length of the larger expanded allele.Normal allele CAG length, interaction between expanded and normal alleles, and presence of a second expanded allele do not influence age at onset of motor manifestations, indicating that the rate of HD pathogenesis leading to motor diagnosis is determined by a completely dominant action of the longest expanded allele and as yet unidentified genetic or environmental factors.
2012
CAG repeat expansion in Huntington disease determines age at onset in a fully dominant fashion / Lee, Jm; Ramos, Em; Lee, Jh; Gillis, T; Mysore, Js; Hayden, Mr; Warby, Sc; Morrison, P; Nance, M; Ross, Ca; Margolis, Rl; Squitieri, F; Orobello, S; Di Donato, S; Gomez Tortosa, E; Ayuso, C; Suchowersky, O; Trent, Rj; Mccusker, E; Novelletto, A; Frontali, M; Jones, R; Ashizawa, T; Frank, S; Saint Hilaire, Mh; Hersch, Sm; Rosas, Hd; Lucente, D; Harrison, Mb; Zanko, A; Abramson, Rk; Marder, K; Sequeiros, J; Paulsen, Js; PREDICT HD study of the Huntington Study Group, Landwehrmeyer GB; REGISTRY study of the European Huntington's Disease Network, Myers RH; HD MAPS Study, Group; Macdonald, Me; Gusella, Jf; CollaboratorsDurr A, COHORT study of the H. S. G.; Rosenblatt, A; Frati, L; Perlman, S; Conneally, Pm; Klimek, Ml; Diggin, M; Hadzi, T; Duckett, A; Ahmed, A; Allen, P; Ames, D; Anderson, C; Anderson, K; Anderson, K; Andrews, T; Ashburner, J; Axelson, E; Aylward, E; Barker, Ra; Barth, K; Barton, S; Baynes, K; Bea, A; Beall, E; Beg, Mf; Beglinger, Lj; Biglan, K; Bjork, K; Blanchard, S; Bockholt, J; Bommu, Sr; Brossman, B; Burrows, M; Calhoun, V; Carlozzi, N; Chesire, A; Chiu, E; Chua, P; Connell, Rj; Connor, C; Corey Bloom, J; Craufurd, D; Cross, S; Cysique, L; Santos, Rd; Davis, J; Decolongon, J; Dipietro, A; Doucette, N; Downing, N; Dudler, A; Dunn, S; Ecker, D; Epping, Ea; Erickson, D; Erwin, C; Evans, K; Factor, Sa; Farias, S; Fatas, M; Fiedorowicz, J; Fullam, R; Furtado, S; Garde, Mb; Gehl, C; Geschwind, Md; Goh, A; Gooblar, J; Goodman, A; Griffith, J; Groves, M; Guttman, M; Hamilton, J; Harrington, D; Harris, G; Heaton, Rk; Helmer, K; Henneberry, M; Hershey, T; Herwig, K; Howard, E; Hunter, C; Jankovic, J; Johnson, H; Johnson, A; Jones, K; Juhl, A; Kim, Ey; Kimble, M; King, P; Klimek, Ml; Klöppel, S; Koenig, K; Komiti, A; Kumar, R; Langbehn, D; Leavitt, B; Leserman, A; Lim, K; Lipe, H; Lowe, M; Magnotta, Va; Mallonee, Wm; Mans, N; Marietta, J; Marshall, F; Martin, W; Mason, S; Matheson, K; Matson, W; Mazzoni, P; Mcdowell, W; Miedzybrodzka, Z; Miller, M; Mills, J; Miracle, D; Montross, K; Moore, D; Mori, S; Moser, Dj; Moskowitz, C; Newman, E; Nopoulos, P; Novak, M; O'Rourke, J; Oakes, D; Ondo, W; Orth, M; Panegyres, P; Pease, K; Perlman, S; Perlmutter, J; Peterson, A; Phillips, M; Pierson, R; Potkin, S; Preston, J; Quaid, K; Radtke, D; Rae, D; Rao, S; Raymond, L; Reading, S; Ready, R; Reece, C; Reilmann, R; Reynolds, N; Richardson, K; Rickards, H; Ro, E; Robinson, R; Rodnitzky, R; Rogers, B; Rosenblatt, A; Rosser, E; Rosser, A; Price, K; Price, K; Ryan, P; Salmon, D; Samii, A; Schumacher, J; Schumacher, J; Sendon, Jl; Shear, P; Sheinberg, A; Shpritz, B; Siedlecki, K; Simpson, Sa; Singer, A; Smith, J; Smith, M; Smith, G; Snyder, P; Song, A; Sran, S; Stephan, K; Stober, J; Sümuth, S; Suter, G; Tabrizi, S; Tempkin, T; Testa, C; Thompson, S; Thomsen, T; Thumma, K; Toga, A; Trautmann, S; Tremont, G; Tupper, D; Turner, J; Uc, E; Vaccarino, A; van Duijn, E; Van Walsem, M; Vik, S; Vonsattel, Jp; Vuletich, E; Warner, T; Wasserman, P; Wassink, T; Waterman, E; Weaver, K; Weir, D; Welsh, C; Werling Witkoske, C; Wesson, M; Westervelt, H; Weydt, P; Wheelock, V; Williams, K; Williams, J; Wodarski, M; Wojcieszek, J; Wood, J; Wood Siverio, C; Wu, S; Yastrubetskaya, O; de Yebenes, Jg; Zhao, Yq; Zimbelman, J; Zschiegner, R; Aaserud, O; Abbruzzese, G; Andrews, T; Andrich, J; Antczak, J; Arran, N; Artiga, Mj; Bachoud Lévi, A; Banaszkiewicz, K; di Poggio, Mb; Bandmann, O; Barbera, Ma; Barker, Ra; Barrero, F; Barth, K; Bas, J; Beister, A; Bentivoglio, Ar; Bertini, E; Biunno, I; Bjørgo, K; Bjørnevoll, I; Bohlen, S; Bonelli, Rm; Bos, R; Bourne, C; Bradbury, A; Brockie, P; Brown, F; Bruno, S; Bryl, A; Buck, A; Burg, S; Burgunder, Jm; Burns, P; Burrows, L; Busquets, N; Busse, M; Calopa, M; Carruesco, Gt; Casado, Ag; Catena, Jl; Chu, C; Ciesielska, A; Clapton, J; Clayton, C; Clenaghan, C; Coelho, M; Connemann, J; Craufurd, D; Crooks, J; Cubillo, Pt; Cubo, E; Curtis, A; DE MICHELE, Giuseppe; De Nicola, A; de Souza, J; de Weert, A; de Yébenes, Jg; Dekker, M; Descals, A; Di Maio, L; Di Pietro, A; Dipple, H; Dose, M; Dumas, Em; Dunnett, S; Ecker, D; Elifani, F; Ellison Rose, L; Elorza, Md; Eschenbach, C; Evans, C; Fairtlough, H; Fannemel, M; Fasano, A; Fenollar, M; Ferrandes, G; Ferreira, Jj; Fillingham, K; Finisterra, Am; Fisher, K; Fletcher, A; Foster, J; Foustanos, I; Frech, Fa; Fullam, R; Fullham, R; Gago, M; García, Rg; García, Ss; Garrett, C; Gellera, C; Gill, P; Ginestroni, A; Golding, C; Goodman, A; Gørvell, P; Grant, J; Griguoli, A; Gross, D; Guedes, L; Bascuñanaguerra, M; Guerra, Mr; Guerrero, R; Guia, Db; Guidubaldi, A; Hallam, C; Hamer, S; Hammer, K; Handley, Oj; Harding, A; Hasholt, L; Hedge, R; Heiberg, A; Heinicke, W; Held, C; Hernanz, Lc; Herranhof, B; Herrera, Cd; Hidding, U; Hiivola, H; Hill, S; Hjermind, Le; Hobson, E; Hoffmann, R; Holl, Ah; Howard, L; Hunt, S; Huson, S; Ialongo, T; Idiago, Jm; Illmann, T; Jachinska, K; Jacopini, G; Jakobsen, O; Jamieson, S; Jamrozik, Z; Janik, P; Johns, N; Jones, L; Jones, U; Jurgens, Ck; Kaelin, A; Kalbarczyk, A; Kershaw, A; Khalil, H; Kieni, J; Klimberg, A; Koivisto, Sp; Koppers, K; Kosinski, Cm; Krawczyk, M; Kremer, B; Krysa, W; Kwiecinski, H; Lahiri, N; Lambeck, J; Lange, H; Laver, F; Leenders, Kl; Levey, J; Leythaeuser, G; Lezius, F; Llesoy, Jr; Löhle, M; López, Cd; Lorenza, F; Loria, G; Magnet, M; Mandich, P; Marchese, R; Marcinkowski, J; Mariotti, C; Mariscal, N; Markova, I; Marquard, R; Martikainen, K; Martínez, Ih; Martínez Descals, A; Martino, T; Mason, S; Mckenzie, S; Mechi, C; Mendes, T; Mestre, T; Middleton, J; Milkereit, E; Miller, J; Miller, J; Minster, S; Möller, Jc; Monza, D; Morales, B; Moreau, Lv; Moreno, Jl; Münchau, A; Murch, A; Nielsen, Je; Niess, A; Nørremølle, A; Novak, M; O'Donovan, K; Orth, M; Otti, D; Owen, M; Padieu, H; Paganini, M; Painold, A; Päivärinta, M; Partington Jones, L; Paterski, L; Paterson, N; Patino, D; Patton, M; Peinemann, A; Peppa, N; Perea, Mf; Peterson, M; Piacentini, S; Piano, C; Pons i., Càrdenas R; Prehn, C; Price, K; Probst, D; Quarrell, O; Quiroga, Pp; Raab, T; Rakowicz, M; Raman, A; Raymond, L; Reilmann, R; Reinante, G; Reisinger, K; Retterstøl, L; Ribaï, P; Riballo, Av; Ribas, Gg; Richter, S; Rickards, H; Rinaldi, C; Rissling, I; Ritchie, S; Rivera, Sv; Robert, Mf; Roca, E; Romano, S; Romoli, Am; Roos, Ra; Røren, N; Rose, S; Rosser, E; Rosser, A; Rossi, F; Rothery, J; Rudzinska, M; Ruíz, Pj; Ruíz, Bg; Russo, Cv; Ryglewicz, D; Saft, C; Salvatore, Elena; Sánchez, V; Sando, Sb; Šašinková, P; Sass, C; Scheibl, M; Schiefer, J; Schlangen, C; Schmidt, S; Schöggl, H; Schrenk, C; Schüpbach, M; Schuierer, M; Sebastián, Ar; Selimbegovic Turkovic, A; Sempolowicz, J; Silva, M; Sitek, E; Slawek, J; Snowden, J; Soleti, F; Soliveri, P; Sollom, A; Soltan, W; Sorbi, S; Sørensen, Sa; Spadaro, M; Städtler, M; Stamm, C; Steiner, T; Stokholm, J; Stokke, B; Stopford, C; Storch, A; Straßburger, K; Stubbe, L; Sulek, A; Szczudlik, A; Tabrizi, S; Taylor, R; Terol, Sd; Thomas, G; Thompson, J; Thomson, A; Tidswell, K; Torres, Mm; Toscano, J; Townhill, J; Trautmann, S; Tucci, T; Tuuha, K; Uhrova, T; Valadas, A; van Hout, Ms; van Oostrom, Jc; van Vugt, Jp; van Walsem, Mr; Vandenberghe, W; Verellen Dumoulin, C; Vergara, Mr; Verstappen, Cc; Verstraelen, N; Viladrich, Cm; Villanueva, C; Wahlström, J; Warner, T; Wehus, R; Weindl, A; Werner, Cj; Westmoreland, L; Weydt, P; Wiedemann, A; Wild, E; Wild, S; Witjes Ané, Mn; Witkowski, G; Wójcik, M; Wolz, M; Wolz, A; Wright, J; Yardumian, P; Yates, S; Yudina, E; Zaremba, J; Zaugg, Sw; Zdzienicka, E; Zielonka, D; Zielonka, E; Zinzi, P; Zittel, S; Zucker, B; Adams, J; Agarwal, P; Antonijevic, I; Beck, C; Chiu, E; Churchyard, A; Colcher, A; Corey Bloom, J; Dorsey, R; 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[10.1212/WNL.0b013e318249f683]
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