Nicotine, the main alkaloid of tobacco, is a non-prescription drug to which all members of a tobacco-smoking society are exposed either through direct smoke inhalation or through second-hand passive 'smoking'. Nicotine is also commercially available in some pharmaceutical products and is used worldwide as a botanical insecticide in agriculture. Nicotine dynamics in indoor and outdoor environments as well as the human excretions and the manufacturing process are responsible for its entry in the environment through municipal and industrial wastewater discharges. The presence of nicotine in surface and ground waters points out that it survives a conventional treatment process and persists in potable-water supplies. Complete removal of nicotine is instead reported when additional chlorination steps are used. In this paper a simulation of STP chlorination of nicotine and a genotoxic evaluation of its main degradation products are reported. Under laboratory conditions removal of nicotine seems not to be due to mineralization but to transformation in oxidized and chlorinated products. The by-products have been isolated after fractionation by diverse chromatographic procedures and their structures determined using mass spectrometry and H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopy. Preliminary genotoxic SOS Chromotests with Escherichia coil PQ37 evidence no toxicity of the products. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chemical fate and genotoxic risk associated with hypochlorite treatment of nicotine

ZARRELLI, ARMANDO;DELLA GRECA, MARINA;IESCE, MARIA ROSARIA;CERMOLA, FLAVIO;TEMUSSI, FABIO;LAVORGNA, Marino;PASSANANTI, MONICA;PREVITERA, LUCIO
2012

Abstract

Nicotine, the main alkaloid of tobacco, is a non-prescription drug to which all members of a tobacco-smoking society are exposed either through direct smoke inhalation or through second-hand passive 'smoking'. Nicotine is also commercially available in some pharmaceutical products and is used worldwide as a botanical insecticide in agriculture. Nicotine dynamics in indoor and outdoor environments as well as the human excretions and the manufacturing process are responsible for its entry in the environment through municipal and industrial wastewater discharges. The presence of nicotine in surface and ground waters points out that it survives a conventional treatment process and persists in potable-water supplies. Complete removal of nicotine is instead reported when additional chlorination steps are used. In this paper a simulation of STP chlorination of nicotine and a genotoxic evaluation of its main degradation products are reported. Under laboratory conditions removal of nicotine seems not to be due to mineralization but to transformation in oxidized and chlorinated products. The by-products have been isolated after fractionation by diverse chromatographic procedures and their structures determined using mass spectrometry and H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopy. Preliminary genotoxic SOS Chromotests with Escherichia coil PQ37 evidence no toxicity of the products. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
1-2012. STE 132–138. Nicotina.pdf

accesso aperto

Descrizione: Articolo principale
Tipologia: Documento in Post-print
Licenza: Dominio pubblico
Dimensione 717.44 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
717.44 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/467825
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 25
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 24
social impact