Aims: Improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction is a major goal of heart failure (HF) treatment. However, data on clinical characteristics, exercise performance and prognosis in HF patients who improved ejection fraction (HFimpEF) are scarce. The study aimed to determine whether HFimpEF patients have a distinct clinical phenotype, biology and prognosis than HF patients with persistently reduced ejection fraction (pHFrEF). Methods and results: A total of 7948 patients enrolled in the Metabolic Exercise Cardiac Kidney Indexes (MECKI) score database were evaluated (median follow-up of 1490 days). We analysed clinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, exercise, and survival data from HFimpEF (n = 1504) and pHFrEF (n = 6017) patients. The primary endpoint of the study was the composite of cardiovascular death, left ventricular assist device implantation, and urgent heart transplantation. HFimpEF patients had lower HF severity: left ventricular ejection fraction 44.0 [41.0–47.0] versus 29.7 [24.1–34.5]%, B-type natriuretic peptide 122 [65–296] versus 373 [152–888] pg/ml, haemoglobin 13.5 [12.2–14.6] versus 13.7 [12.5–14.7] g/dl, renal function by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation 72.0 [56.7–89.3] versus 70.4 [54.5–85.3] ml/min, peak oxygen uptake 62.2 [50.7–74.1] versus 52.6 [41.8–64.3]% predicted, minute ventilation-to-carbon dioxide output slope 30.0 [26.9–34.4] versus 32.1 [28.0–38.0] in HFimpEF and pHFrEF, respectively (p < 0.001 for all). Cardiovascular mortality rates were 26.6 and 46.9 per 1000 person-years for HFimpEF and pHFrEF, respectively (p < 0.001). Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that HFimpEF had better a long-term prognosis compared with pHFrEF patients. After adjustment for variables differentiating HFimpEF from pHFrEF, except echocardiographic parameters, the Kaplan–Meier curves showed the same prognosis. Conclusions: Heart failure with improved ejection fraction represents a peculiar group of HF patients whose clinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, and exercise characteristics parallel the recovery of systolic function. Nonetheless, these patients remain at risk for adverse outcome.

Heart failure patients with improved ejection fraction: Insights from the MECKI score database / Agostoni, P.; Pluchinotta, F. R.; Salvioni, E.; Mapelli, M.; Galotta, A.; Bonomi, A.; Magri, D.; Perna, E.; Paolillo, S.; Corra, U.; Raimondo, R.; Lagioia, R.; Badagliacca, R.; Perrone Filardi, P.; Apostolo, A.; Senni, M.; Iorio, A.; Correale, M.; Campodonico, J.; Palermo, P.; Cicoira, M.; Metra, M.; Guazzi, M.; Limongelli, G.; Contini, M.; Pezzuto, B.; Sinagra, G.; Parati, G.; Cattadori, G.; Carriere, C.; Cittar, M.; Matassini, M. V.; Salzano, A.; Cittadini, A.; Mase, M.; Bandera, F.; Bussotti, M.; Mattavelli, I.; Re, F.; Vignati, C.; Lombardi, C.; Scardovi, A. B.; Sciomer, S.; Passantino, A.; Emdin, M.; Di Lenarda, A.; Passino, C.; Santolamazza, C.; Moscucci, F.; Zaffalon, D.; Piepoli, M.. - In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HEART FAILURE. - ISSN 1388-9842. - 25:11(2023), pp. 1976-1984. [10.1002/ejhf.3031]

Heart failure patients with improved ejection fraction: Insights from the MECKI score database

Paolillo S.;Perrone Filardi P.;Correale M.;Palermo P.;Limongelli G.;Salzano A.;Cittadini A.;Re F.;Passantino A.;Piepoli M.
2023

Abstract

Aims: Improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction is a major goal of heart failure (HF) treatment. However, data on clinical characteristics, exercise performance and prognosis in HF patients who improved ejection fraction (HFimpEF) are scarce. The study aimed to determine whether HFimpEF patients have a distinct clinical phenotype, biology and prognosis than HF patients with persistently reduced ejection fraction (pHFrEF). Methods and results: A total of 7948 patients enrolled in the Metabolic Exercise Cardiac Kidney Indexes (MECKI) score database were evaluated (median follow-up of 1490 days). We analysed clinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, exercise, and survival data from HFimpEF (n = 1504) and pHFrEF (n = 6017) patients. The primary endpoint of the study was the composite of cardiovascular death, left ventricular assist device implantation, and urgent heart transplantation. HFimpEF patients had lower HF severity: left ventricular ejection fraction 44.0 [41.0–47.0] versus 29.7 [24.1–34.5]%, B-type natriuretic peptide 122 [65–296] versus 373 [152–888] pg/ml, haemoglobin 13.5 [12.2–14.6] versus 13.7 [12.5–14.7] g/dl, renal function by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation 72.0 [56.7–89.3] versus 70.4 [54.5–85.3] ml/min, peak oxygen uptake 62.2 [50.7–74.1] versus 52.6 [41.8–64.3]% predicted, minute ventilation-to-carbon dioxide output slope 30.0 [26.9–34.4] versus 32.1 [28.0–38.0] in HFimpEF and pHFrEF, respectively (p < 0.001 for all). Cardiovascular mortality rates were 26.6 and 46.9 per 1000 person-years for HFimpEF and pHFrEF, respectively (p < 0.001). Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that HFimpEF had better a long-term prognosis compared with pHFrEF patients. After adjustment for variables differentiating HFimpEF from pHFrEF, except echocardiographic parameters, the Kaplan–Meier curves showed the same prognosis. Conclusions: Heart failure with improved ejection fraction represents a peculiar group of HF patients whose clinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, and exercise characteristics parallel the recovery of systolic function. Nonetheless, these patients remain at risk for adverse outcome.
2023
Heart failure patients with improved ejection fraction: Insights from the MECKI score database / Agostoni, P.; Pluchinotta, F. R.; Salvioni, E.; Mapelli, M.; Galotta, A.; Bonomi, A.; Magri, D.; Perna, E.; Paolillo, S.; Corra, U.; Raimondo, R.; Lagioia, R.; Badagliacca, R.; Perrone Filardi, P.; Apostolo, A.; Senni, M.; Iorio, A.; Correale, M.; Campodonico, J.; Palermo, P.; Cicoira, M.; Metra, M.; Guazzi, M.; Limongelli, G.; Contini, M.; Pezzuto, B.; Sinagra, G.; Parati, G.; Cattadori, G.; Carriere, C.; Cittar, M.; Matassini, M. V.; Salzano, A.; Cittadini, A.; Mase, M.; Bandera, F.; Bussotti, M.; Mattavelli, I.; Re, F.; Vignati, C.; Lombardi, C.; Scardovi, A. B.; Sciomer, S.; Passantino, A.; Emdin, M.; Di Lenarda, A.; Passino, C.; Santolamazza, C.; Moscucci, F.; Zaffalon, D.; Piepoli, M.. - In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HEART FAILURE. - ISSN 1388-9842. - 25:11(2023), pp. 1976-1984. [10.1002/ejhf.3031]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/958714
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