The thermal structure and chemical composition of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath the Alto Paranaíba Igneous Province defined by the major and trace element compositions of garnet and clinopyroxene xenocrysts and mantle peridotite xenoliths entrained in the Cretaceous Três Ranchos kimberlite. Estimated temperatures and pressures indicate a typical cratonic geotherm, with a surface heat flow of ∼ 40 mW/m2 slightly hotter than that at the São Francisco Craton margin (35–36 mW/m2), suggesting lateral heterogeneities in the geothermal gradients. A deep mantle portion (160 km) is recorded by a lherzolite xenolith (5 GPa and 1200 °C). This portion has undergone pervasive interstitial melt percolation of an ultra-alkaline silicate melt and late injection of small silicate melt fractions such as the host carbonated kimberlite. This pervasive migration extended into shallower SCLM sectors at 124–100 km (3.9–3.1 GPa and ∼ 940–810 °C) as evidenced by metasomatized (±phlogopite) peridotite identified by sinusoidal REE garnet compositions. This portion is apparently intercalated at 120–110 km depth (3.7–3.3 GPa and ∼ 850 °C) with strongly depleted peridotites showing garnet and clinopyroxene compositions extremely impoverished in moderately incompatible elements, as a result of extreme ancient, melt extraction. Atop the metasomatized and depleted peridotites, at 100 km depth, a layer of fertile lherzolite is identified by garnet xenocrysts, with 'normal', HREE-enriched, steadily fractionated LREE-depleted patterns. Combining our data with those of the Osvaldo França SCLM points to the occurrence of a deeper sector (>100 km depth beneath Trȇs Ranchos) originally formed by extremely depleted peridotites, successively metasomatized by ultra-alkaline melts; and a shallower sector of the São Francisco craton composed of fertile lherzolites unrelated to ultra-alkaline magmatism. Similar fertile lherzolites are found in the uppermost sectors of the Siberian and Kaapval SCLM, suggesting that they may be a ubiquitous, primary feature, possibly related to the stabilization of the Archean cratons.

Stabilization and evolution of the Brazilian subcontinental lithospheric mantle: Insights from garnet xenocrysts and peridotite xenoliths of Três Ranchos kimberlite (APIP, Brazil) / Guarino, Vincenza; Bonazzi, Mattia; Nimis, Paolo; Guitarrari Azzone, Rogério; Cariddi, Bruna; Zanetti, Alberto. - In: GONDWANA RESEARCH. - ISSN 1342-937X. - 130:(2024), pp. 18-35. [10.1016/j.gr.2024.01.005]

Stabilization and evolution of the Brazilian subcontinental lithospheric mantle: Insights from garnet xenocrysts and peridotite xenoliths of Três Ranchos kimberlite (APIP, Brazil)

Vincenza Guarino
;
Bruna Cariddi;
2024

Abstract

The thermal structure and chemical composition of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath the Alto Paranaíba Igneous Province defined by the major and trace element compositions of garnet and clinopyroxene xenocrysts and mantle peridotite xenoliths entrained in the Cretaceous Três Ranchos kimberlite. Estimated temperatures and pressures indicate a typical cratonic geotherm, with a surface heat flow of ∼ 40 mW/m2 slightly hotter than that at the São Francisco Craton margin (35–36 mW/m2), suggesting lateral heterogeneities in the geothermal gradients. A deep mantle portion (160 km) is recorded by a lherzolite xenolith (5 GPa and 1200 °C). This portion has undergone pervasive interstitial melt percolation of an ultra-alkaline silicate melt and late injection of small silicate melt fractions such as the host carbonated kimberlite. This pervasive migration extended into shallower SCLM sectors at 124–100 km (3.9–3.1 GPa and ∼ 940–810 °C) as evidenced by metasomatized (±phlogopite) peridotite identified by sinusoidal REE garnet compositions. This portion is apparently intercalated at 120–110 km depth (3.7–3.3 GPa and ∼ 850 °C) with strongly depleted peridotites showing garnet and clinopyroxene compositions extremely impoverished in moderately incompatible elements, as a result of extreme ancient, melt extraction. Atop the metasomatized and depleted peridotites, at 100 km depth, a layer of fertile lherzolite is identified by garnet xenocrysts, with 'normal', HREE-enriched, steadily fractionated LREE-depleted patterns. Combining our data with those of the Osvaldo França SCLM points to the occurrence of a deeper sector (>100 km depth beneath Trȇs Ranchos) originally formed by extremely depleted peridotites, successively metasomatized by ultra-alkaline melts; and a shallower sector of the São Francisco craton composed of fertile lherzolites unrelated to ultra-alkaline magmatism. Similar fertile lherzolites are found in the uppermost sectors of the Siberian and Kaapval SCLM, suggesting that they may be a ubiquitous, primary feature, possibly related to the stabilization of the Archean cratons.
2024
Stabilization and evolution of the Brazilian subcontinental lithospheric mantle: Insights from garnet xenocrysts and peridotite xenoliths of Três Ranchos kimberlite (APIP, Brazil) / Guarino, Vincenza; Bonazzi, Mattia; Nimis, Paolo; Guitarrari Azzone, Rogério; Cariddi, Bruna; Zanetti, Alberto. - In: GONDWANA RESEARCH. - ISSN 1342-937X. - 130:(2024), pp. 18-35. [10.1016/j.gr.2024.01.005]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/951805
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