Materials based on silicon-phosphorus mixed oxides have traditionally attracted interest in electronics, optics, catalysis, and related fields. The preparation of a solid containing stable Si–O–P linkages is a huge challenge due to their intrinsic instability to hydrolysis in a wet atmosphere. On the other hand, most technological applications of these materials, such as protonic conductive membranes in fuel cells and water-tolerant solid acid catalysts, are related to their interaction with water; consequently, suitable synthesis procedures that positively face this tradeoff are mandatory. Besides the traditional high-temperature techniques, sol-gel synthetic methods represent a viable, low-cost alternative, allowing for the preparation of high-purity materials with a homogeneous distribution of the components at the atomic scale. Si–O–P linkages are easily obtained by nonhydrolytic sol-gel routes, but only in inert and dry atmosphere. Conversely, hydrolytic routes offer opportunities to control the structure of the products in a wide range of processing conditions. The present review aims at providing an overall picture of the research on the sol-gel synthesis of phosphosilicate and related materials and theisr different applications, emphasizing how the interest in these systems is still lively, considering both conventional and emerging applications, such as flame retardance. The incorporation of Si–O–P nanostructures in polymer composites, coatings, and textiles is indeed a promising strategy to improve properties like thermal stability and fire resistance; however, their in-situ synthesis brings about additional difficulties related to the reactivity of the precursors. The perspectives linked with the development of Si–P-based materials are finally outlined.

Solids containing Si-O-P bonds: is the hydrolytic sol-gel route a suitable synthesis strategy? / Imparato, Claudio; Bifulco, Aurelio; Malucelli, Giulio; Aronne, Antonio. - In: JOURNAL OF SOL-GEL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. - ISSN 1573-4846. - (2023). [10.1007/s10971-023-06241-4]

Solids containing Si-O-P bonds: is the hydrolytic sol-gel route a suitable synthesis strategy?

Claudio Imparato
Primo
;
Aurelio Bifulco
Secondo
;
Antonio Aronne
Ultimo
2023

Abstract

Materials based on silicon-phosphorus mixed oxides have traditionally attracted interest in electronics, optics, catalysis, and related fields. The preparation of a solid containing stable Si–O–P linkages is a huge challenge due to their intrinsic instability to hydrolysis in a wet atmosphere. On the other hand, most technological applications of these materials, such as protonic conductive membranes in fuel cells and water-tolerant solid acid catalysts, are related to their interaction with water; consequently, suitable synthesis procedures that positively face this tradeoff are mandatory. Besides the traditional high-temperature techniques, sol-gel synthetic methods represent a viable, low-cost alternative, allowing for the preparation of high-purity materials with a homogeneous distribution of the components at the atomic scale. Si–O–P linkages are easily obtained by nonhydrolytic sol-gel routes, but only in inert and dry atmosphere. Conversely, hydrolytic routes offer opportunities to control the structure of the products in a wide range of processing conditions. The present review aims at providing an overall picture of the research on the sol-gel synthesis of phosphosilicate and related materials and theisr different applications, emphasizing how the interest in these systems is still lively, considering both conventional and emerging applications, such as flame retardance. The incorporation of Si–O–P nanostructures in polymer composites, coatings, and textiles is indeed a promising strategy to improve properties like thermal stability and fire resistance; however, their in-situ synthesis brings about additional difficulties related to the reactivity of the precursors. The perspectives linked with the development of Si–P-based materials are finally outlined.
2023
Solids containing Si-O-P bonds: is the hydrolytic sol-gel route a suitable synthesis strategy? / Imparato, Claudio; Bifulco, Aurelio; Malucelli, Giulio; Aronne, Antonio. - In: JOURNAL OF SOL-GEL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. - ISSN 1573-4846. - (2023). [10.1007/s10971-023-06241-4]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/945228
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