Cardio-mechanical monitoring techniques, such as Seismocardiography (SCG) and Gyrocardiography (GCG), have received an ever-growing interest in recent years as potential alternatives to Electrocardiography (ECG) for heart rate monitoring. Wearable SCG and GCG devices based on lightweight accelerometers and gyroscopes are particularly appealing for continuous, long-term monitoring of heart rate and its variability (HRV). Heartbeat detection in cardio-mechanical signals is usually performed with the support of a concurrent ECG lead, which, however, limits their applicability in standalone cardio-mechanical monitoring applications. The complex and variable morphology of SCG and GCG signals makes the ECG-free heartbeat detection task quite challenging; therefore, only a few methods have been proposed. Very recently, a template matching method based on normalized cross-correlation (NCC) has been demonstrated to provide very accurate detection of heartbeats and estimation of inter-beat intervals in SCG and GCG signals of pathological subjects. In this study, the accuracy of HRV indices obtained with this template matching method is evaluated by comparison with ECG. Tests were performed on two public datasets of SCG and GCG signals from healthy and pathological subjects. Linear regression, correlation, and Bland-Altman analyses were carried out to evaluate the agreement of 24 HRV indices obtained from SCG and GCG signals with those obtained from ECG signals, simultaneously acquired from the same subjects. The results of this study show that the NCC-based template matching method allowed estimating HRV indices from SCG and GCG signals of healthy subjects with acceptable accuracy. On healthy subjects, the relative errors on time-domain indices ranged from 0.25% to 15%, on frequency-domain indices ranged from 10% to 20%, and on non-linear indices were within 8%. The estimates obtained on signals from pathological subjects were affected by larger errors. Overall, GCG provided slightly better performances as compared to SCG, both on healthy and pathological subjects. These findings provide, for the first time, clear evidence that monitoring HRV via SCG and GCG sensors without concurrent ECG is feasible with the NCC-based template matching method for heartbeat detection.

ECG-Free Heartbeat Detection in Seismocardiography and Gyrocardiography Signals Provides Acceptable Heart Rate Variability Indices in Healthy and Pathological Subjects / Parlato, S.; Centracchio, J.; Esposito, D.; Bifulco, P.; Andreozzi, E.. - In: SENSORS. - ISSN 1424-8220. - 23:19(2023), p. 8114. [10.3390/s23198114]

ECG-Free Heartbeat Detection in Seismocardiography and Gyrocardiography Signals Provides Acceptable Heart Rate Variability Indices in Healthy and Pathological Subjects

Centracchio J.
Secondo
;
Esposito D.;Bifulco P.
Penultimo
;
Andreozzi E.
Ultimo
2023

Abstract

Cardio-mechanical monitoring techniques, such as Seismocardiography (SCG) and Gyrocardiography (GCG), have received an ever-growing interest in recent years as potential alternatives to Electrocardiography (ECG) for heart rate monitoring. Wearable SCG and GCG devices based on lightweight accelerometers and gyroscopes are particularly appealing for continuous, long-term monitoring of heart rate and its variability (HRV). Heartbeat detection in cardio-mechanical signals is usually performed with the support of a concurrent ECG lead, which, however, limits their applicability in standalone cardio-mechanical monitoring applications. The complex and variable morphology of SCG and GCG signals makes the ECG-free heartbeat detection task quite challenging; therefore, only a few methods have been proposed. Very recently, a template matching method based on normalized cross-correlation (NCC) has been demonstrated to provide very accurate detection of heartbeats and estimation of inter-beat intervals in SCG and GCG signals of pathological subjects. In this study, the accuracy of HRV indices obtained with this template matching method is evaluated by comparison with ECG. Tests were performed on two public datasets of SCG and GCG signals from healthy and pathological subjects. Linear regression, correlation, and Bland-Altman analyses were carried out to evaluate the agreement of 24 HRV indices obtained from SCG and GCG signals with those obtained from ECG signals, simultaneously acquired from the same subjects. The results of this study show that the NCC-based template matching method allowed estimating HRV indices from SCG and GCG signals of healthy subjects with acceptable accuracy. On healthy subjects, the relative errors on time-domain indices ranged from 0.25% to 15%, on frequency-domain indices ranged from 10% to 20%, and on non-linear indices were within 8%. The estimates obtained on signals from pathological subjects were affected by larger errors. Overall, GCG provided slightly better performances as compared to SCG, both on healthy and pathological subjects. These findings provide, for the first time, clear evidence that monitoring HRV via SCG and GCG sensors without concurrent ECG is feasible with the NCC-based template matching method for heartbeat detection.
2023
ECG-Free Heartbeat Detection in Seismocardiography and Gyrocardiography Signals Provides Acceptable Heart Rate Variability Indices in Healthy and Pathological Subjects / Parlato, S.; Centracchio, J.; Esposito, D.; Bifulco, P.; Andreozzi, E.. - In: SENSORS. - ISSN 1424-8220. - 23:19(2023), p. 8114. [10.3390/s23198114]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/944265
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