: Cadmium is a known human carcinogen, and has been shown to profoundly affect male reproductive function, at multiple levels, by exerting both endocrine and non-endocrine actions. Nevertheless, the potential role of cadmium in the etiology of testis cancer has been scantly investigated in humans, and, currently, available epidemiological observational studies are insufficient to draw definitive conclusions in this regard. On the contrary, experimental studies in laboratory animals demonstrated that cadmium is a strong inducer of testis tumors, mostly represented by benign Leydig cell adenoma; moreover, malignant transformation was also reported in few animals, following cadmium treatment. Early experimental studies in animals proposed an endocrine-dependent mechanism of cadmium-induced testis tumorigenesis; however, more recent findings from cell-free assays, in vitro studies, and short-term in vivo studies, highlighted that cadmium might also contribute to testis tumor development by early occurring endocrine-independent mechanisms, which include aberrant gene expression within the testis, and genotoxic effects, and take place well before the timing of testis tumorigenesis. These endocrine-independent mechanisms, however, have not been directly investigated on testis tumor samples retrieved from affected, cadmium-treated animals so far. The present review focuses on the relationship between cadmium exposure and testis cancer, by reporting the few epidemiological observational human studies available, and by providing animal-based experimental evidences of cadmium implication in the pathogenesis and progression of testis tumor. Moreover, the relevance of experimental animal studies to human cadmium exposure and the translational potential of experimental findings will be extensively discussed, by critically addressing strengths and weaknesses of available data.

The environment and male reproductive system: the potential role and underlying mechanisms of cadmium in testis cancer / DE ANGELIS, Cristina; Galdiero, Giacomo; Menafra, Davide; Garifalos, Francesco; Verde, Nunzia; Piscopo, Mariangela; Negri, Mariarosaria; Auriemma, RENATA SIMONA; Simeoli, Chiara; Pivonello, Claudia; Colao, Annamaria; Pivonello, Rosario. - In: CRITICAL REVIEWS IN TOXICOLOGY. - ISSN 1040-8444. - (2023), pp. 1-24. [10.1080/10408444.2023.2250387]

The environment and male reproductive system: the potential role and underlying mechanisms of cadmium in testis cancer

Cristina de Angelis;Giacomo Galdiero;Davide Menafra;Francesco Garifalos;Nunzia Verde;Mariangela Piscopo;Mariarosaria Negri;Renata Simona Auriemma;Chiara Simeoli;Claudia Pivonello;Annamaria Colao;Rosario Pivonello
2023

Abstract

: Cadmium is a known human carcinogen, and has been shown to profoundly affect male reproductive function, at multiple levels, by exerting both endocrine and non-endocrine actions. Nevertheless, the potential role of cadmium in the etiology of testis cancer has been scantly investigated in humans, and, currently, available epidemiological observational studies are insufficient to draw definitive conclusions in this regard. On the contrary, experimental studies in laboratory animals demonstrated that cadmium is a strong inducer of testis tumors, mostly represented by benign Leydig cell adenoma; moreover, malignant transformation was also reported in few animals, following cadmium treatment. Early experimental studies in animals proposed an endocrine-dependent mechanism of cadmium-induced testis tumorigenesis; however, more recent findings from cell-free assays, in vitro studies, and short-term in vivo studies, highlighted that cadmium might also contribute to testis tumor development by early occurring endocrine-independent mechanisms, which include aberrant gene expression within the testis, and genotoxic effects, and take place well before the timing of testis tumorigenesis. These endocrine-independent mechanisms, however, have not been directly investigated on testis tumor samples retrieved from affected, cadmium-treated animals so far. The present review focuses on the relationship between cadmium exposure and testis cancer, by reporting the few epidemiological observational human studies available, and by providing animal-based experimental evidences of cadmium implication in the pathogenesis and progression of testis tumor. Moreover, the relevance of experimental animal studies to human cadmium exposure and the translational potential of experimental findings will be extensively discussed, by critically addressing strengths and weaknesses of available data.
2023
The environment and male reproductive system: the potential role and underlying mechanisms of cadmium in testis cancer / DE ANGELIS, Cristina; Galdiero, Giacomo; Menafra, Davide; Garifalos, Francesco; Verde, Nunzia; Piscopo, Mariangela; Negri, Mariarosaria; Auriemma, RENATA SIMONA; Simeoli, Chiara; Pivonello, Claudia; Colao, Annamaria; Pivonello, Rosario. - In: CRITICAL REVIEWS IN TOXICOLOGY. - ISSN 1040-8444. - (2023), pp. 1-24. [10.1080/10408444.2023.2250387]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/940144
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