Detailed molecular composition of solid phase extracted dissolved organic matter (SPEDOM) collected from fractured-rock groundwater was compared to connected surface river water at two different watersheds in the unconfined chalk aquifer of Champagne in France using full scan ultrahigh resolution electrospray and photoionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), Orbitrap tandem MS (MS/MS) and 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). 1H NMR spectroscopy indicated that groundwater SPEDOM carried a higher contribution of aliphatic compounds while surface river waters SPEDOM were enriched in carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM), acetate derivatives and oxygenated units. Furthermore, we show here that use of photoionization (APPI(+)) in aquifer studies is key, ionizing about eight times more compounds than ESI in surface river water samples, specifically targeting the dissolved organic nitrogen pool, accounting for more than 50% of the total molecular space, as well as a non-polar, more aromatic fractions; with little overlap with compounds detected by ESI(-) FT-ICR MS. On the other hand, groundwater SPEDOM samples did not show similar selectivity as less molecular diversity was observed in APPI compared to ESI. Mass-difference transformation networks (MDiNs) applied to ESI(-) and APPI(+) FT-ICR MS datasets provided an overview of the biogeochemical relationships within the aquifer, revealing chemical diversity and microbial/abiotic reactions. Finally, the combination of ESI(-) FT-ICR MS and detailed Orbitrap MS/MS analysis revealed a pool of polar, anthropogenic sulphur-containing surfactants in the groundwaters, likely originating from agricultural runoff. Overall, our study shows that in this aquifer, groundwater SPEDOM contains a significantly reduced pool of organic compounds compared to surface river waters, possibly related to a combination of lack of sunlight and adsorption of high O/C formulas to mineral surfaces.

Concealed by darkness: combination of NMR and HRMS reveal the molecular nature of dissolved organic matter in fractured-rock groundwater and connected surface waters / Bridoux, M. C.; Gaiffe, G.; Pacholski, P.; Cangemi, S.; Vinci, G.; Spaccini, R.; Schramm, S.. - In: WATER RESEARCH. - ISSN 0043-1354. - (2023), p. 120392. [10.1016/j.watres.2023.120392]

Concealed by darkness: combination of NMR and HRMS reveal the molecular nature of dissolved organic matter in fractured-rock groundwater and connected surface waters

S. Cangemi;G. Vinci;R. Spaccini;
2023

Abstract

Detailed molecular composition of solid phase extracted dissolved organic matter (SPEDOM) collected from fractured-rock groundwater was compared to connected surface river water at two different watersheds in the unconfined chalk aquifer of Champagne in France using full scan ultrahigh resolution electrospray and photoionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), Orbitrap tandem MS (MS/MS) and 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). 1H NMR spectroscopy indicated that groundwater SPEDOM carried a higher contribution of aliphatic compounds while surface river waters SPEDOM were enriched in carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM), acetate derivatives and oxygenated units. Furthermore, we show here that use of photoionization (APPI(+)) in aquifer studies is key, ionizing about eight times more compounds than ESI in surface river water samples, specifically targeting the dissolved organic nitrogen pool, accounting for more than 50% of the total molecular space, as well as a non-polar, more aromatic fractions; with little overlap with compounds detected by ESI(-) FT-ICR MS. On the other hand, groundwater SPEDOM samples did not show similar selectivity as less molecular diversity was observed in APPI compared to ESI. Mass-difference transformation networks (MDiNs) applied to ESI(-) and APPI(+) FT-ICR MS datasets provided an overview of the biogeochemical relationships within the aquifer, revealing chemical diversity and microbial/abiotic reactions. Finally, the combination of ESI(-) FT-ICR MS and detailed Orbitrap MS/MS analysis revealed a pool of polar, anthropogenic sulphur-containing surfactants in the groundwaters, likely originating from agricultural runoff. Overall, our study shows that in this aquifer, groundwater SPEDOM contains a significantly reduced pool of organic compounds compared to surface river waters, possibly related to a combination of lack of sunlight and adsorption of high O/C formulas to mineral surfaces.
2023
Concealed by darkness: combination of NMR and HRMS reveal the molecular nature of dissolved organic matter in fractured-rock groundwater and connected surface waters / Bridoux, M. C.; Gaiffe, G.; Pacholski, P.; Cangemi, S.; Vinci, G.; Spaccini, R.; Schramm, S.. - In: WATER RESEARCH. - ISSN 0043-1354. - (2023), p. 120392. [10.1016/j.watres.2023.120392]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/932984
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