Background: Cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy is a type of ectopic pregnancy in which the fertilized egg is implanted in the muscle or fibrous tissue of the scar after a previous cesarean delivery. The condition can be catastrophic if not managed on time and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Several approaches have been studied for the management of cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy in women who opted for termination of pregnancy with no consensus on the best treatment modality reached so far. Objective: This study aimed to compare the success rate of hysteroscopic resection vs ultrasound-guided dilation and evacuation for the treatment of cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy. Study design: This was a parallel group, nonblinded, randomized clinical trial conducted at a single center in Italy. Women with singleton gestations at <8 weeks and 6 days of gestation were included in the study. Inclusion criteria were women with a cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy with positive embryonic heart activity who opted for termination of pregnancy. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive either hysteroscopic resection (ie, intervention group) or ultrasound-guided dilation and evacuation (ie, control group). Both groups received 50 mg/m2 of methotrexate intramuscularly at the time of randomization (day 1) and another dose at day 3. A third dose of methotrexate was planned in case of persistence of positive fetal heart activity at day 5. Participants received either ultrasound-guided dilation and evacuation or hysteroscopic resection from 1 to 5 days after the last dose of methotrexate. Hysteroscopic resection was performed under spinal anesthesia using a 15 Fr bipolar mini-resectoscope. Dilation and evacuation were performed by vacuum aspiration with a Karman cannula, followed by sharp curettage, if necessary, under ultrasound guidance. The primary outcome was the success rate of the treatment protocol, defined as no further treatment required until the complete resolution of the cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy. Resolution of the cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy was evaluated based on decline of beta-hCG and the absence of residual gestational material in the endometrial cavity. Treatment failure was defined as the necessity for further treatment required until the complete resolution of the cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy. A sample size calculation indicated that 54 participants were required to test the hypothesis RESULTS: A total of 54 women were enrolled and randomized. Number of previous cesarean deliveries ranged from 1 to 3. Overall, 10 women received a third dose of methotrexate with 7 of 27 (25.9%) participants in the hysteroscopic resection group and 3 of 27 (11.1%) in the dilation and evacuation group. The success rate was 100% (27/27) in the hysteroscopic resection group and 81.5% (22/27) in the dilation and evacuation group (relative risk, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.48). Additional procedures were required in 5 cases of the control group, namely 3 hysterectomies, 1 laparotomic uterine segmental resection, and 1 hysteroscopic resection. The length of stay in the hospital was 9.0±2.9 days in the intervention group and 10.0±3.5 days in the control group (mean difference, -1.00 days; 95% confidence interval, -2.71 to 0.71). No cases of admission to intensive care unit or maternal death were reported. Conclusion: Hysteroscopic resection was associated with an increased success rate in the treatment of cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy when compared with ultrasound-guided dilation and evacuation.

Hysteroscopic resection vs ultrasound-guided dilation and evacuation for treatment of cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy: a randomized clinical trial / Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Zizolfi, Brunella; Saccone, Gabriele; Ferrara, Cinzia; Sglavo, Gabriella; De Angelis, Maria Chiara; Mastantuoni, Enrica; Bifulco, Giuseppe. - In: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY. - ISSN 1097-6868. - (2023). [10.1016/j.ajog.2023.04.038]

Hysteroscopic resection vs ultrasound-guided dilation and evacuation for treatment of cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy: a randomized clinical trial

Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio;Zizolfi, Brunella;Saccone, Gabriele;Ferrara, Cinzia;Sglavo, Gabriella;De Angelis, Maria Chiara;Mastantuoni, Enrica;Bifulco, Giuseppe
2023

Abstract

Background: Cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy is a type of ectopic pregnancy in which the fertilized egg is implanted in the muscle or fibrous tissue of the scar after a previous cesarean delivery. The condition can be catastrophic if not managed on time and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Several approaches have been studied for the management of cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy in women who opted for termination of pregnancy with no consensus on the best treatment modality reached so far. Objective: This study aimed to compare the success rate of hysteroscopic resection vs ultrasound-guided dilation and evacuation for the treatment of cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy. Study design: This was a parallel group, nonblinded, randomized clinical trial conducted at a single center in Italy. Women with singleton gestations at <8 weeks and 6 days of gestation were included in the study. Inclusion criteria were women with a cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy with positive embryonic heart activity who opted for termination of pregnancy. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive either hysteroscopic resection (ie, intervention group) or ultrasound-guided dilation and evacuation (ie, control group). Both groups received 50 mg/m2 of methotrexate intramuscularly at the time of randomization (day 1) and another dose at day 3. A third dose of methotrexate was planned in case of persistence of positive fetal heart activity at day 5. Participants received either ultrasound-guided dilation and evacuation or hysteroscopic resection from 1 to 5 days after the last dose of methotrexate. Hysteroscopic resection was performed under spinal anesthesia using a 15 Fr bipolar mini-resectoscope. Dilation and evacuation were performed by vacuum aspiration with a Karman cannula, followed by sharp curettage, if necessary, under ultrasound guidance. The primary outcome was the success rate of the treatment protocol, defined as no further treatment required until the complete resolution of the cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy. Resolution of the cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy was evaluated based on decline of beta-hCG and the absence of residual gestational material in the endometrial cavity. Treatment failure was defined as the necessity for further treatment required until the complete resolution of the cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy. A sample size calculation indicated that 54 participants were required to test the hypothesis RESULTS: A total of 54 women were enrolled and randomized. Number of previous cesarean deliveries ranged from 1 to 3. Overall, 10 women received a third dose of methotrexate with 7 of 27 (25.9%) participants in the hysteroscopic resection group and 3 of 27 (11.1%) in the dilation and evacuation group. The success rate was 100% (27/27) in the hysteroscopic resection group and 81.5% (22/27) in the dilation and evacuation group (relative risk, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.48). Additional procedures were required in 5 cases of the control group, namely 3 hysterectomies, 1 laparotomic uterine segmental resection, and 1 hysteroscopic resection. The length of stay in the hospital was 9.0±2.9 days in the intervention group and 10.0±3.5 days in the control group (mean difference, -1.00 days; 95% confidence interval, -2.71 to 0.71). No cases of admission to intensive care unit or maternal death were reported. Conclusion: Hysteroscopic resection was associated with an increased success rate in the treatment of cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy when compared with ultrasound-guided dilation and evacuation.
2023
Hysteroscopic resection vs ultrasound-guided dilation and evacuation for treatment of cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy: a randomized clinical trial / Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Zizolfi, Brunella; Saccone, Gabriele; Ferrara, Cinzia; Sglavo, Gabriella; De Angelis, Maria Chiara; Mastantuoni, Enrica; Bifulco, Giuseppe. - In: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY. - ISSN 1097-6868. - (2023). [10.1016/j.ajog.2023.04.038]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/932045
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