: Prolactinomas are the most common pituitary tumour histotype, with microprolactinomas being prevalent in women and macroprolactinomas in men. Hyperprolactinemia is among the most common causes of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in both sexes, thus prompting medical advice for hypogonadism (infertility, oligo-amenorrhea, impotence, osteoporosis/osteopenia) in both sexes, and for signs and symptoms of mass effects (hypopituitarism, visual loss, optic chiasm compression, cranial nerve deficits, headaches) predominantly in men. Diagnostic workup involves a single PRL measurement and pituitary imaging, but some laboratory artefacts, i.e., the hook effect and macroprolactin, can complicate or delay the diagnosis. The treatment of choice for prolactinomas is represented by dopamine agonists, mainly cabergoline, able to induce disease control, restore fertility in both sexes, and definitively cure one-third of patients, thus permitting treatment discontinuation. Pregnancy and menopause may promote spontaneous PRL decline and anticipate cabergoline discontinuation in women. Surgery and/or radiotherapy are indicated in case of resistance to cabergoline not overcome by the increase in drug dose up to the maximally tolerated or the patient's personal choice of surgery. The evidence of resistance to cabergoline in invasive and proliferative tumours may indicate biological aggressiveness, thus requiring alternative therapeutic approaches mainly based on temozolomide use as monotherapy or combined with radiotherapy. In uncontrolled patients, new medical approaches (alternative hormonal treatments, cytotoxic drugs, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, mTOR/Akt inhibitors, tyrosine kinase inhibitors or immunotherapy) may be offered but the experience collected to date is still very scant. This article reviews different facets of prolactinomas and discusses approaches to the condition in more common clinical situations.

Approach to the Patient with Prolactinoma / Auriemma, Renata S; Pirchio, Rosa; Pivonello, Claudia; Garifalos, Francesco; Colao, Annamaria; Pivonello, Rosario. - In: THE JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM. - ISSN 0021-972X. - (2023). [10.1210/clinem/dgad174]

Approach to the Patient with Prolactinoma

Auriemma, Renata S;Pirchio, Rosa;Pivonello, Claudia;Garifalos, Francesco;Colao, Annamaria;Pivonello, Rosario
2023

Abstract

: Prolactinomas are the most common pituitary tumour histotype, with microprolactinomas being prevalent in women and macroprolactinomas in men. Hyperprolactinemia is among the most common causes of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in both sexes, thus prompting medical advice for hypogonadism (infertility, oligo-amenorrhea, impotence, osteoporosis/osteopenia) in both sexes, and for signs and symptoms of mass effects (hypopituitarism, visual loss, optic chiasm compression, cranial nerve deficits, headaches) predominantly in men. Diagnostic workup involves a single PRL measurement and pituitary imaging, but some laboratory artefacts, i.e., the hook effect and macroprolactin, can complicate or delay the diagnosis. The treatment of choice for prolactinomas is represented by dopamine agonists, mainly cabergoline, able to induce disease control, restore fertility in both sexes, and definitively cure one-third of patients, thus permitting treatment discontinuation. Pregnancy and menopause may promote spontaneous PRL decline and anticipate cabergoline discontinuation in women. Surgery and/or radiotherapy are indicated in case of resistance to cabergoline not overcome by the increase in drug dose up to the maximally tolerated or the patient's personal choice of surgery. The evidence of resistance to cabergoline in invasive and proliferative tumours may indicate biological aggressiveness, thus requiring alternative therapeutic approaches mainly based on temozolomide use as monotherapy or combined with radiotherapy. In uncontrolled patients, new medical approaches (alternative hormonal treatments, cytotoxic drugs, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, mTOR/Akt inhibitors, tyrosine kinase inhibitors or immunotherapy) may be offered but the experience collected to date is still very scant. This article reviews different facets of prolactinomas and discusses approaches to the condition in more common clinical situations.
2023
Approach to the Patient with Prolactinoma / Auriemma, Renata S; Pirchio, Rosa; Pivonello, Claudia; Garifalos, Francesco; Colao, Annamaria; Pivonello, Rosario. - In: THE JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM. - ISSN 0021-972X. - (2023). [10.1210/clinem/dgad174]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/926363
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