: SARS-CoV-2, one of the human RNA viruses, is widely studied around the world. Significant efforts have been made to understand its molecular mechanisms of action and how it interacts with epithelial cells and the human microbiome since it has also been observed in gut microbiome bacteria. Many studies emphasize the importance of surface immunity and also that the mucosal system is critical in the interaction of the pathogen with the cells of the oral, nasal, pharyngeal, and intestinal epithelium. Recent studies have shown how bacteria in the human gut microbiome produce toxins capable of altering the classical mechanisms of interaction of viruses with surface cells. This paper presents a simple approach to highlight the initial behavior of a novel pathogen, SARS-CoV-2, on the human microbiome. The immunofluorescence microscopy technique can be combined with spectral counting performed at mass spectrometry of viral peptides in bacterial cultures, along with identification of the presence of D-amino acids within viral peptides in bacterial cultures and in patients' blood. This approach makes it possible to establish the possible expression or increase of viral RNA viruses in general and SARS-CoV-2, as discussed in this study, and to determine whether or not the microbiome is involved in the pathogenetic mechanisms of the viruses. This novel combined approach can provide information more rapidly, avoiding the biases of virological diagnosis and identifying whether a virus can interact with, bind to, and infect bacteria and epithelial cells. Understanding whether some viruses have bacteriophagic behavior allows vaccine therapies to be focused either toward certain toxins produced by bacteria in the microbiome or toward finding inert or symbiotic viral mutations with the human microbiome. This new knowledge opens a scenario on a possible future vaccine: the probiotics vaccine, engineered with the right resistance to viruses that attach to both the epithelium human surface and gut microbiome bacteria.

Analysis of Bacteriophage Behavior of a Human RNA Virus, SARS-CoV-2, through the Integrated Approach of Immunofluorescence Microscopy, Proteomics and D-Amino Acid Quantification / Brogna, Carlo; Costanzo, Vincenzo; Brogna, Barbara; Bisaccia, Domenico Rocco; Brogna, Giancarlo; Giuliano, Marino; Montano, Luigi; Viduto, Valentina; Cristoni, Simone; Fabrowski, Mark; Piscopo, Marina. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1422-0067. - 24:4(2023), p. 3929. [10.3390/ijms24043929]

Analysis of Bacteriophage Behavior of a Human RNA Virus, SARS-CoV-2, through the Integrated Approach of Immunofluorescence Microscopy, Proteomics and D-Amino Acid Quantification

Costanzo, Vincenzo;Piscopo, Marina
Ultimo
2023

Abstract

: SARS-CoV-2, one of the human RNA viruses, is widely studied around the world. Significant efforts have been made to understand its molecular mechanisms of action and how it interacts with epithelial cells and the human microbiome since it has also been observed in gut microbiome bacteria. Many studies emphasize the importance of surface immunity and also that the mucosal system is critical in the interaction of the pathogen with the cells of the oral, nasal, pharyngeal, and intestinal epithelium. Recent studies have shown how bacteria in the human gut microbiome produce toxins capable of altering the classical mechanisms of interaction of viruses with surface cells. This paper presents a simple approach to highlight the initial behavior of a novel pathogen, SARS-CoV-2, on the human microbiome. The immunofluorescence microscopy technique can be combined with spectral counting performed at mass spectrometry of viral peptides in bacterial cultures, along with identification of the presence of D-amino acids within viral peptides in bacterial cultures and in patients' blood. This approach makes it possible to establish the possible expression or increase of viral RNA viruses in general and SARS-CoV-2, as discussed in this study, and to determine whether or not the microbiome is involved in the pathogenetic mechanisms of the viruses. This novel combined approach can provide information more rapidly, avoiding the biases of virological diagnosis and identifying whether a virus can interact with, bind to, and infect bacteria and epithelial cells. Understanding whether some viruses have bacteriophagic behavior allows vaccine therapies to be focused either toward certain toxins produced by bacteria in the microbiome or toward finding inert or symbiotic viral mutations with the human microbiome. This new knowledge opens a scenario on a possible future vaccine: the probiotics vaccine, engineered with the right resistance to viruses that attach to both the epithelium human surface and gut microbiome bacteria.
2023
Analysis of Bacteriophage Behavior of a Human RNA Virus, SARS-CoV-2, through the Integrated Approach of Immunofluorescence Microscopy, Proteomics and D-Amino Acid Quantification / Brogna, Carlo; Costanzo, Vincenzo; Brogna, Barbara; Bisaccia, Domenico Rocco; Brogna, Giancarlo; Giuliano, Marino; Montano, Luigi; Viduto, Valentina; Cristoni, Simone; Fabrowski, Mark; Piscopo, Marina. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1422-0067. - 24:4(2023), p. 3929. [10.3390/ijms24043929]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/920987
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