: Genetics of Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is ascribable to pathogenic variants in genes encoding proteins leading to an impaired LDL uptake by the LDL receptor (LDLR). Two forms of the disease are possible, heterozygous (HeFH) and homozygous (HoFH), caused by one or two pathogenic variants, respectively, in the three main genes that are responsible for the autosomal dominant disease: LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 genes. The HeFH is the most common genetic disease in humans, being the prevalence about 1:300. Variants in the LDLRAP1 gene causes FH with a recessive inheritance and a specific APOE variant was described as causative of FH, contributing to increase FH genetic heterogeneity. In addition, variants in genes causing other dyslipidemias showing phenotypes overlapping with FH may mimic FH in patients without causative variants (FH-phenocopies; ABCG5, ABCG8, CYP27A1 and LIPA genes) or act as phenotype modifiers in patients with a pathogenic variant in a causative gene. The presence of several common variants was also considered a genetic basis of FH and several polygenic risk scores (PRS) have been described. The presence of a variant in modifier genes or high PRS in HeFH further exacerbates the phenotype, partially justifying its variability among patients. This review aims to report the updates on the genetic and molecular bases of FH with their implication for molecular diagnosis.

Genetic Heterogeneity of Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Repercussions for Molecular Diagnosis / DI TARANTO, MARIA DONATA; Fortunato, Giuliana. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1422-0067. - 24:4(2023), p. 3224. [10.3390/ijms24043224]

Genetic Heterogeneity of Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Repercussions for Molecular Diagnosis

Maria Donata Di Taranto
;
Giuliana Fortunato
2023

Abstract

: Genetics of Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is ascribable to pathogenic variants in genes encoding proteins leading to an impaired LDL uptake by the LDL receptor (LDLR). Two forms of the disease are possible, heterozygous (HeFH) and homozygous (HoFH), caused by one or two pathogenic variants, respectively, in the three main genes that are responsible for the autosomal dominant disease: LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 genes. The HeFH is the most common genetic disease in humans, being the prevalence about 1:300. Variants in the LDLRAP1 gene causes FH with a recessive inheritance and a specific APOE variant was described as causative of FH, contributing to increase FH genetic heterogeneity. In addition, variants in genes causing other dyslipidemias showing phenotypes overlapping with FH may mimic FH in patients without causative variants (FH-phenocopies; ABCG5, ABCG8, CYP27A1 and LIPA genes) or act as phenotype modifiers in patients with a pathogenic variant in a causative gene. The presence of several common variants was also considered a genetic basis of FH and several polygenic risk scores (PRS) have been described. The presence of a variant in modifier genes or high PRS in HeFH further exacerbates the phenotype, partially justifying its variability among patients. This review aims to report the updates on the genetic and molecular bases of FH with their implication for molecular diagnosis.
2023
Genetic Heterogeneity of Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Repercussions for Molecular Diagnosis / DI TARANTO, MARIA DONATA; Fortunato, Giuliana. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1422-0067. - 24:4(2023), p. 3224. [10.3390/ijms24043224]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/914021
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