In the present study, surface contamination where antineoplastic drugs (ADs) are present was investigated, as occupational exposure risk is still an open debate. Despite recommendations and safety standard procedures being in place in health care settings, quantifiable levels of ADs are being reported in the recent literature. Thus, a survey monitoring program was conducted over five years (2016–2021) in nine Italian hospitals. The repeated surveys produced 8288 data points that have been grouped according to the main hospital settings, such as pharmacy areas and patient care units. Based on the most often prepared ADs, the investigated drugs were cyclophosphamide (CP), gemcitabine (GEM), 5-fluorouracil (5–FU), and platinum compounds (Pt). Patient care units had a frequency of positive wipe samples (59%) higher than pharmacies (44%). Conversely, pharmacies had a frequency of positive pad samples higher (24%) than patient care units (10%). Moreover, by statistical analysis, pad samples had a significantly higher risk of contamination in pharmacy areas than in patient care units. In this study, the 75th and the 90th percentiles of the contamination levels were obtained. The 90th percentile was chosen to describe a suitable benchmark that compares results obtained by the present research with those previously reported in the literature. Based upon surface contamination loads, our data showed that 5–FU had the highest concentration values, but the lowest frequency of positive samples. In pharmacy areas, the 90th percentile of 5–FU data distribution was less than 0.346 ng/cm2 and less than 0.443 ng/cm2 in patient care units. AD levels are higher than those reported for health care settings in other European countries yet trends of contamination in Italy have shown to decrease over time.

Occupational Exposure Assessment to Antineoplastic Drugs in Nine Italian Hospital Centers over a 5-Year Survey Program / Sottani, C.; Grignani, E.; Cornacchia, M.; Negri, S.; Cuna, F. S. R. D.; Cottica, D.; Bruzzese, D.; Severi, P.; Strocchi, D.; Verna, G.; Leso, V.; Iavicoli, I.. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH. - ISSN 1660-4601. - 19:14(2022), p. 8601. [10.3390/ijerph19148601]

Occupational Exposure Assessment to Antineoplastic Drugs in Nine Italian Hospital Centers over a 5-Year Survey Program

Bruzzese D.;Leso V.;Iavicoli I.
2022

Abstract

In the present study, surface contamination where antineoplastic drugs (ADs) are present was investigated, as occupational exposure risk is still an open debate. Despite recommendations and safety standard procedures being in place in health care settings, quantifiable levels of ADs are being reported in the recent literature. Thus, a survey monitoring program was conducted over five years (2016–2021) in nine Italian hospitals. The repeated surveys produced 8288 data points that have been grouped according to the main hospital settings, such as pharmacy areas and patient care units. Based on the most often prepared ADs, the investigated drugs were cyclophosphamide (CP), gemcitabine (GEM), 5-fluorouracil (5–FU), and platinum compounds (Pt). Patient care units had a frequency of positive wipe samples (59%) higher than pharmacies (44%). Conversely, pharmacies had a frequency of positive pad samples higher (24%) than patient care units (10%). Moreover, by statistical analysis, pad samples had a significantly higher risk of contamination in pharmacy areas than in patient care units. In this study, the 75th and the 90th percentiles of the contamination levels were obtained. The 90th percentile was chosen to describe a suitable benchmark that compares results obtained by the present research with those previously reported in the literature. Based upon surface contamination loads, our data showed that 5–FU had the highest concentration values, but the lowest frequency of positive samples. In pharmacy areas, the 90th percentile of 5–FU data distribution was less than 0.346 ng/cm2 and less than 0.443 ng/cm2 in patient care units. AD levels are higher than those reported for health care settings in other European countries yet trends of contamination in Italy have shown to decrease over time.
2022
Occupational Exposure Assessment to Antineoplastic Drugs in Nine Italian Hospital Centers over a 5-Year Survey Program / Sottani, C.; Grignani, E.; Cornacchia, M.; Negri, S.; Cuna, F. S. R. D.; Cottica, D.; Bruzzese, D.; Severi, P.; Strocchi, D.; Verna, G.; Leso, V.; Iavicoli, I.. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH. - ISSN 1660-4601. - 19:14(2022), p. 8601. [10.3390/ijerph19148601]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/913971
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