: Gellan gum (GG) was chemically modified with methacrylic moieties to produce a photocrosslinkable biomaterial ink, hereinafter called methacrylated GG (GGMA), with improved physico-chemical properties, mechanical behavior and stability under physiological conditions. Afterwards, GGMA was functionalized by incorporating two different bioactive compounds, a naturally derived eumelanin extracted from the black soldier fly (BSF-Eumel), or hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAp), synthesized by the sol-gel method. Different ink formulations based on GGMA (2 and 4% (w/v)), BSF-Eumel, at a selected concentration (0.3125 mg/mL), or HAp (10 and 30% wHAp/wGGMA) were developed and processed by three-dimensional (3D) printing. All the functionalized GGMA-based ink formulations allowed obtaining 3D-printed GGMA-based scaffolds with a well-organized structure. For both bioactive signals, the scaffolds with the highest GGMA concentration (4% (w/v)) and the highest percentage of infill (45%) showed the best performances in terms of morphological and mechanical properties. Indeed, these scaffolds showed a good structural integrity over 28 days. Given the presence of negatively charged groups along the eumelanin backbone, scaffolds consisting of GGMA/BSF-Eumel demonstrated a higher stability. From a mechanical point of view, GGMA/BSF-Eumel scaffolds exhibited values of storage modulus similar to those of GGMA ones, while the inclusion of HAp at 30% (wHAp/wGGMA) led to a storage modulus of 32.5 kPa, 3.5-fold greater than neat GGMA. In vitro studies proved the capability of the bioactivated 3D-printed scaffolds to support 7F2 osteoblast cell growth and differentiation. BSF-Eumel and HAp triggered a different time-dependent physiological response in the osteoblasts. Specifically, while the ink with BSF-Eumel acted as a stimulus towards cell proliferation, reaching the highest value at 14 days, a higher expression of alkaline phosphatase activity was detected for scaffolds consisting of GGMA and HAp. The overall findings demonstrated the possible use of these biomaterial inks for 3D-printed bone tissue-engineered scaffolds.

Bioactive Composite Methacrylated Gellan Gum for 3D-Printed Bone Tissue-Engineered Scaffolds / D’Amora, Ugo; Ronca, Alfredo; Scialla, Stefania; Soriente, Alessandra; Manini, Paola; Wei Phua, Jun; Ottenheim, Christoph; Pezzella, Alessandro; Calabrese, Giovanna; Grazia Raucci, Maria; Ambrosio, Luigi. - In: NANOMATERIALS. - ISSN 2079-4991. - 13:4(2023), p. 772. [10.3390/nano13040772]

Bioactive Composite Methacrylated Gellan Gum for 3D-Printed Bone Tissue-Engineered Scaffolds

Ugo D’Amora;Alfredo Ronca;Stefania Scialla;Alessandra Soriente;Paola Manini;Alessandro Pezzella;Giovanna Calabrese;
2023

Abstract

: Gellan gum (GG) was chemically modified with methacrylic moieties to produce a photocrosslinkable biomaterial ink, hereinafter called methacrylated GG (GGMA), with improved physico-chemical properties, mechanical behavior and stability under physiological conditions. Afterwards, GGMA was functionalized by incorporating two different bioactive compounds, a naturally derived eumelanin extracted from the black soldier fly (BSF-Eumel), or hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAp), synthesized by the sol-gel method. Different ink formulations based on GGMA (2 and 4% (w/v)), BSF-Eumel, at a selected concentration (0.3125 mg/mL), or HAp (10 and 30% wHAp/wGGMA) were developed and processed by three-dimensional (3D) printing. All the functionalized GGMA-based ink formulations allowed obtaining 3D-printed GGMA-based scaffolds with a well-organized structure. For both bioactive signals, the scaffolds with the highest GGMA concentration (4% (w/v)) and the highest percentage of infill (45%) showed the best performances in terms of morphological and mechanical properties. Indeed, these scaffolds showed a good structural integrity over 28 days. Given the presence of negatively charged groups along the eumelanin backbone, scaffolds consisting of GGMA/BSF-Eumel demonstrated a higher stability. From a mechanical point of view, GGMA/BSF-Eumel scaffolds exhibited values of storage modulus similar to those of GGMA ones, while the inclusion of HAp at 30% (wHAp/wGGMA) led to a storage modulus of 32.5 kPa, 3.5-fold greater than neat GGMA. In vitro studies proved the capability of the bioactivated 3D-printed scaffolds to support 7F2 osteoblast cell growth and differentiation. BSF-Eumel and HAp triggered a different time-dependent physiological response in the osteoblasts. Specifically, while the ink with BSF-Eumel acted as a stimulus towards cell proliferation, reaching the highest value at 14 days, a higher expression of alkaline phosphatase activity was detected for scaffolds consisting of GGMA and HAp. The overall findings demonstrated the possible use of these biomaterial inks for 3D-printed bone tissue-engineered scaffolds.
2023
Bioactive Composite Methacrylated Gellan Gum for 3D-Printed Bone Tissue-Engineered Scaffolds / D’Amora, Ugo; Ronca, Alfredo; Scialla, Stefania; Soriente, Alessandra; Manini, Paola; Wei Phua, Jun; Ottenheim, Christoph; Pezzella, Alessandro; Calabrese, Giovanna; Grazia Raucci, Maria; Ambrosio, Luigi. - In: NANOMATERIALS. - ISSN 2079-4991. - 13:4(2023), p. 772. [10.3390/nano13040772]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/913450
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