The interplay between light absorption and the molecular environment has a central role in the observed photophysics of a wide range of photoinduced chemical and biological phenomena. The understanding of the interplay between vibrational and electronic transitions is the focus of this work, since it can provide a rationale to tune the optical properties of charge transfer (CT) materials used for technological applications. A clear description of these processes poses a nontrivial challenge from both the theoretical and experimental points of view, where the main issue is how to accurately describe and probe drastic changes in the electronic structure and the ultrafast molecular relaxation and dynamics. In this work we focused on the intermolecular CT reaction that occurs upon photon absorption in a π-stacked model system in dichloromethane solution, in which the 1-chloronaphthalene (1ClN) acts as the electron donor and tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) is the electron acceptor. Density functional theory calculations have been carried out to characterize both the ground-state properties and more importantly the low-lying CT electronic transition, and excellent agreement with recently available experimental results [Mathies, R. A.; et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2018, 122 (14), 3594] was obtained. The minima of the ground state and first singlet excited state have been accurately characterized in terms of spatial arrangements and vibrational Raman frequencies, and the CT natures of the first two low-lying electronic transitions in the absorption spectra have been addressed and clarified too. Finally, by modeling the possible coordination sites of the TCNE electron acceptor with respect to monovalent ions (Na+, K+) in an implicit solution of acetonitrile, we find that TCNE can accommodate a counterion in two different arrangements, parallel and orthogonal to the C═C axis, leading to the formation of a contact ion pair. The nature of the counterion and its relative position entail structural modifications of the TCNE radical anion, mainly the central C═C and C≡N bonds, compared to the isolated case. An important red shift of the C═C stretching frequency was observed when the counterion is orthogonal to the double bond, to a greater extent for Na+. On the contrary, in the second case, where the counterion ion lies along the internuclear C═C axis, we find that K+ polarizes the electron density of the double bond more, resulting in a greater red shift than with Na+.

Electronic and Vibrational Manifold of Tetracyanoethylene-Chloronaphthalene Charge Transfer Complex in Solution: Insights from TD-DFT and Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics / Coppola, Federico; Cimino, Paola; Perrella, Fulvio; Crisci, Luigi; Petrone, Alessio; Rega, Nadia. - In: THE JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY. A.. - ISSN 1520-5215. - 126:40(2022), pp. 7179-7192. [10.1021/acs.jpca.2c05001]

Electronic and Vibrational Manifold of Tetracyanoethylene-Chloronaphthalene Charge Transfer Complex in Solution: Insights from TD-DFT and Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics

Coppola, Federico
Primo
;
Cimino, Paola;Perrella, Fulvio;Petrone, Alessio
Penultimo
;
Rega, Nadia
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

The interplay between light absorption and the molecular environment has a central role in the observed photophysics of a wide range of photoinduced chemical and biological phenomena. The understanding of the interplay between vibrational and electronic transitions is the focus of this work, since it can provide a rationale to tune the optical properties of charge transfer (CT) materials used for technological applications. A clear description of these processes poses a nontrivial challenge from both the theoretical and experimental points of view, where the main issue is how to accurately describe and probe drastic changes in the electronic structure and the ultrafast molecular relaxation and dynamics. In this work we focused on the intermolecular CT reaction that occurs upon photon absorption in a π-stacked model system in dichloromethane solution, in which the 1-chloronaphthalene (1ClN) acts as the electron donor and tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) is the electron acceptor. Density functional theory calculations have been carried out to characterize both the ground-state properties and more importantly the low-lying CT electronic transition, and excellent agreement with recently available experimental results [Mathies, R. A.; et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2018, 122 (14), 3594] was obtained. The minima of the ground state and first singlet excited state have been accurately characterized in terms of spatial arrangements and vibrational Raman frequencies, and the CT natures of the first two low-lying electronic transitions in the absorption spectra have been addressed and clarified too. Finally, by modeling the possible coordination sites of the TCNE electron acceptor with respect to monovalent ions (Na+, K+) in an implicit solution of acetonitrile, we find that TCNE can accommodate a counterion in two different arrangements, parallel and orthogonal to the C═C axis, leading to the formation of a contact ion pair. The nature of the counterion and its relative position entail structural modifications of the TCNE radical anion, mainly the central C═C and C≡N bonds, compared to the isolated case. An important red shift of the C═C stretching frequency was observed when the counterion is orthogonal to the double bond, to a greater extent for Na+. On the contrary, in the second case, where the counterion ion lies along the internuclear C═C axis, we find that K+ polarizes the electron density of the double bond more, resulting in a greater red shift than with Na+.
2022
Electronic and Vibrational Manifold of Tetracyanoethylene-Chloronaphthalene Charge Transfer Complex in Solution: Insights from TD-DFT and Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics / Coppola, Federico; Cimino, Paola; Perrella, Fulvio; Crisci, Luigi; Petrone, Alessio; Rega, Nadia. - In: THE JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY. A.. - ISSN 1520-5215. - 126:40(2022), pp. 7179-7192. [10.1021/acs.jpca.2c05001]
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/908469
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 7
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 6
social impact