Rainfall nowcasting supports emergency decision-making in hydrological, agricultural, and economical sectors. However, short-term prediction is challenging because meteorological variables are strongly interconnected and rapidly change during an event. Since machine learning do not require any previous physical assumption, this study investigates their ability to provide reliable and quick forecasts. This paper proposes a machine learning model for probabilistic rainfall nowcasting at 10 min intervals for short lead times - from 30 min up to 6 h. The model employs cumulative rainfall fields from station data as inputs for a feed forward neural network to predict rainfall interval and the corresponding probability of occurrence. Cumulative rainfall depths from station data were used to overcome the lack of temporal memory of the feed forward neural networks. In this way, using only the current rain field as input, the model exploited pattern recognition techniques combining both temporal - cumulative rainfall depth - and spatial - cumulative rainfall field – information. Based on 359 rain events observed in an area of 1619 km2 in Southern Italy, 95 machine learning models were independently trained for 19 recording stations and for each target lead-time (30, 60, 120, 180 and 360 min). Comprehensive nowcasts verification was performed to analyse the reliability of probabilistic nowcasts using both continuous (RMSE and RAE) and categorical (POD, FAR and CSI) indicators. The performance of the models was also compared with the results of Eulerian Persistence. All the models produced consistent nowcasts and learnt the complex relationship describing space–time rainfall evolution. As expected, predictive accuracy gradually decreased as the lead-time increase, according to physically based models. Results showed that the use of both temporal and spatial information enables the model to predict short-term rainfall using only the current measurements as input, resulting in a rapid, easily replicable and convenient nowcasting approach. The procedure is an effective way to predict multi-step rainfall fields and is suitable for operational early warning system.

Short-term rainfall forecasting using cumulative precipitation fields from station data: a probabilistic machine learning approach / Pirone, Dina; Cimorelli, Luigi; DEL GIUDICE, Giuseppe; Pianese, Domenico. - In: JOURNAL OF HYDROLOGY. X. - ISSN 2589-9155. - 617 Part B:128949(2023). [10.1016/j.jhydrol.2022.128949]

Short-term rainfall forecasting using cumulative precipitation fields from station data: a probabilistic machine learning approach

Pirone Dina
;
Cimorelli Luigi;Del Giudice Giuseppe;Pianese Domenico
2023

Abstract

Rainfall nowcasting supports emergency decision-making in hydrological, agricultural, and economical sectors. However, short-term prediction is challenging because meteorological variables are strongly interconnected and rapidly change during an event. Since machine learning do not require any previous physical assumption, this study investigates their ability to provide reliable and quick forecasts. This paper proposes a machine learning model for probabilistic rainfall nowcasting at 10 min intervals for short lead times - from 30 min up to 6 h. The model employs cumulative rainfall fields from station data as inputs for a feed forward neural network to predict rainfall interval and the corresponding probability of occurrence. Cumulative rainfall depths from station data were used to overcome the lack of temporal memory of the feed forward neural networks. In this way, using only the current rain field as input, the model exploited pattern recognition techniques combining both temporal - cumulative rainfall depth - and spatial - cumulative rainfall field – information. Based on 359 rain events observed in an area of 1619 km2 in Southern Italy, 95 machine learning models were independently trained for 19 recording stations and for each target lead-time (30, 60, 120, 180 and 360 min). Comprehensive nowcasts verification was performed to analyse the reliability of probabilistic nowcasts using both continuous (RMSE and RAE) and categorical (POD, FAR and CSI) indicators. The performance of the models was also compared with the results of Eulerian Persistence. All the models produced consistent nowcasts and learnt the complex relationship describing space–time rainfall evolution. As expected, predictive accuracy gradually decreased as the lead-time increase, according to physically based models. Results showed that the use of both temporal and spatial information enables the model to predict short-term rainfall using only the current measurements as input, resulting in a rapid, easily replicable and convenient nowcasting approach. The procedure is an effective way to predict multi-step rainfall fields and is suitable for operational early warning system.
2023
Short-term rainfall forecasting using cumulative precipitation fields from station data: a probabilistic machine learning approach / Pirone, Dina; Cimorelli, Luigi; DEL GIUDICE, Giuseppe; Pianese, Domenico. - In: JOURNAL OF HYDROLOGY. X. - ISSN 2589-9155. - 617 Part B:128949(2023). [10.1016/j.jhydrol.2022.128949]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/908118
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