Introduction: Bovine papillomaviruses −1/−2 (BPVs) are small non-enveloped double-stranded DNA viruses able to infect the skin of bovids and equids, causing development of neoplastic lesions such as bovine cutaneous fibropapillomas and equine sarcoid. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a group of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that degrade basal membrane and extracellular matrix, whose function is essential in physiological processes such as tissue remodeling and wound healing. MMPs activity is finely regulated by a balancing with expression of tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs), a process that is impaired during tumour development. BPV infection is associated with upregulation of MMPs and /or their unbalancing with TIMPs, contributing to local invasion and impairment of extracellular matrix remodeling in equine sarcoid; however, studies regarding this topic in bovine fibropapillomas are lacking. Methods: The aim of this study was to perform an immunohistochemical and biochemical analysis on a panel of MMPs and TIMPs in BPV-2 positive bovine cutaneous fibropapillomas vs. normal skin samples. Results: Immunohistochemistry revealed a cytoplasmic expression of MMP-2 (15/19), a cytoplasmic and perinuclear immunoreactivity of MMP-7 (19/19) and MMP-9 (19/19), along with a cytoplasmic and nuclear pattern of MMP-14 (16/19), accompanied by a cytoplasmic expression of TIMP-1 (14/19) and TIMP-2 (18/19) in tumour samples; western blotting revealed an overexpression of MMP-2 (8/9), MMP-7 (9/9) and MMP-9 (9/9), and a decreased level of MMP-14 (9/9), TIMP-1 (9/9) and TIMP-2 (9/9) in tumour versus normal skin samples. Moreover, gelatine zymography confirmed the expression of pro-active MMP-2 (9/9) and MMP-9 (9/9) and, most importantly, indicated the presence and increased activity of their active forms (82 and 62 kDa, respectively) in tumour samples. Discussion: This is the first study describing MMPs and TIMPs in bovine cutaneous fibropapillomas and our results suggest that their unbalanced expression in presence of BPV-2 may play a significant role in tumour development. A further analysis of supplementary MMPs and TIMPs could bring new important insights into the papillomavirus induced tumours.

Expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)−2/-7/-9/-14 and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs)−1/-2 in bovine cutaneous fibropapillomas associated with BPV-2 infection

Altamura G.;Corteggio A.;Borzacchiello G.
2022

Abstract

Introduction: Bovine papillomaviruses −1/−2 (BPVs) are small non-enveloped double-stranded DNA viruses able to infect the skin of bovids and equids, causing development of neoplastic lesions such as bovine cutaneous fibropapillomas and equine sarcoid. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a group of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that degrade basal membrane and extracellular matrix, whose function is essential in physiological processes such as tissue remodeling and wound healing. MMPs activity is finely regulated by a balancing with expression of tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs), a process that is impaired during tumour development. BPV infection is associated with upregulation of MMPs and /or their unbalancing with TIMPs, contributing to local invasion and impairment of extracellular matrix remodeling in equine sarcoid; however, studies regarding this topic in bovine fibropapillomas are lacking. Methods: The aim of this study was to perform an immunohistochemical and biochemical analysis on a panel of MMPs and TIMPs in BPV-2 positive bovine cutaneous fibropapillomas vs. normal skin samples. Results: Immunohistochemistry revealed a cytoplasmic expression of MMP-2 (15/19), a cytoplasmic and perinuclear immunoreactivity of MMP-7 (19/19) and MMP-9 (19/19), along with a cytoplasmic and nuclear pattern of MMP-14 (16/19), accompanied by a cytoplasmic expression of TIMP-1 (14/19) and TIMP-2 (18/19) in tumour samples; western blotting revealed an overexpression of MMP-2 (8/9), MMP-7 (9/9) and MMP-9 (9/9), and a decreased level of MMP-14 (9/9), TIMP-1 (9/9) and TIMP-2 (9/9) in tumour versus normal skin samples. Moreover, gelatine zymography confirmed the expression of pro-active MMP-2 (9/9) and MMP-9 (9/9) and, most importantly, indicated the presence and increased activity of their active forms (82 and 62 kDa, respectively) in tumour samples. Discussion: This is the first study describing MMPs and TIMPs in bovine cutaneous fibropapillomas and our results suggest that their unbalanced expression in presence of BPV-2 may play a significant role in tumour development. A further analysis of supplementary MMPs and TIMPs could bring new important insights into the papillomavirus induced tumours.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/904560
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