Piezoresistive or piezoelectric force sensors are widely available today. These sensors are preferred to loadcells because of their extremely reduced size, slimness, and low cost, which allow their easy inclusion in a large variety of devices including wearables. In particular, many applications are devoted to monitoring human body movements, such as those related to breathing, muscle contraction, walking, etc. However, such sensors offer variable performance, and they need to be individually calibrated and tested to ensure accurate measurements. An automated electromechanical system that allows simple mechanical tests of force sensors is proposed. The system by means of an electrical motor; a gear box; a connecting rod-crank mechanism; two pistons, and a coupling spring between them, impress sinusoidal axial forces onto the sensor under test. The system is designed as modular so that it can be customized: the force range to which the sensor is subjected, the frequency range, and the coupler with the sensor can be changed to resemble the actual application context. The actual force (read from a loadcell coupled to the sensor under test), a piston displacement, and the sensor output are simultaneously recorded. The electromechanical system generates nearly pure sinusoidal stresses at varying low frequencies (mean total harmonic distortion of 2.77%). The energy dissipated for a single stress cycle was 3.62 gf mm on average. The developed system was used to test a Force Sensitive Resistor (FSR)-based sensor and a piezoelectric (PZT) sensor. The tests revealed significant differences from the actual force values (particularly at very low frequencies), output drifts of the FSR sensor in measurements, and non-linear behaviors. The system was found to be able to provide dynamic performances, accurate calibration, and non-linear behavior of the individual sensor.

Design and Evaluation of a Low-Cost Electromechanical System to Test Dynamic Performance of Force Sensors at Low Frequencies / Esposito, Daniele; Centracchio, Jessica; Andreozzi, Emilio; Bifulco, Paolo; Gargiulo, Gaetano D.. - In: MACHINES. - ISSN 2075-1702. - 10:11(2022), p. 1017. [10.3390/machines10111017]

Design and Evaluation of a Low-Cost Electromechanical System to Test Dynamic Performance of Force Sensors at Low Frequencies

Daniele Esposito
Primo
Methodology
;
Jessica Centracchio
Secondo
Investigation
;
Emilio Andreozzi
Investigation
;
Paolo Bifulco
Penultimo
Conceptualization
;
2022

Abstract

Piezoresistive or piezoelectric force sensors are widely available today. These sensors are preferred to loadcells because of their extremely reduced size, slimness, and low cost, which allow their easy inclusion in a large variety of devices including wearables. In particular, many applications are devoted to monitoring human body movements, such as those related to breathing, muscle contraction, walking, etc. However, such sensors offer variable performance, and they need to be individually calibrated and tested to ensure accurate measurements. An automated electromechanical system that allows simple mechanical tests of force sensors is proposed. The system by means of an electrical motor; a gear box; a connecting rod-crank mechanism; two pistons, and a coupling spring between them, impress sinusoidal axial forces onto the sensor under test. The system is designed as modular so that it can be customized: the force range to which the sensor is subjected, the frequency range, and the coupler with the sensor can be changed to resemble the actual application context. The actual force (read from a loadcell coupled to the sensor under test), a piston displacement, and the sensor output are simultaneously recorded. The electromechanical system generates nearly pure sinusoidal stresses at varying low frequencies (mean total harmonic distortion of 2.77%). The energy dissipated for a single stress cycle was 3.62 gf mm on average. The developed system was used to test a Force Sensitive Resistor (FSR)-based sensor and a piezoelectric (PZT) sensor. The tests revealed significant differences from the actual force values (particularly at very low frequencies), output drifts of the FSR sensor in measurements, and non-linear behaviors. The system was found to be able to provide dynamic performances, accurate calibration, and non-linear behavior of the individual sensor.
2022
Design and Evaluation of a Low-Cost Electromechanical System to Test Dynamic Performance of Force Sensors at Low Frequencies / Esposito, Daniele; Centracchio, Jessica; Andreozzi, Emilio; Bifulco, Paolo; Gargiulo, Gaetano D.. - In: MACHINES. - ISSN 2075-1702. - 10:11(2022), p. 1017. [10.3390/machines10111017]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/903108
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