Forcecardiography (FCG) is a novel technique that records the weak forces induced on the chest wall by cardio-respiratory activity, by using specific force sensors. FCG sensors feature a wide frequency band, which allows us to capture respiration, heart wall motion, heart valves opening and closing (similar to the Seismocardiogram, SCG) and heart sounds, all simultaneously from a single contact point on the chest. As a result, the raw FCG sensors signals exhibit a large component related to the respiratory activity, referred to as a Forcerespirogram (FRG), with a much smaller, superimposed component related to the cardiac activity (the actual FCG) that contains both infrasonic vibrations, referred to as LF-FCG and HF-FCG, and heart sounds. Although respiration can be readily monitored by extracting the very low-frequency component of the raw FCG signal (FRG), it has been observed that the respiratory activity also influences other FCG components, particularly causing amplitude modulations (AM). This preliminary study aimed to assess the consistency of the amplitude modulations of the LF-FCG and HF-FCG signals within the respiratory cycle. A retrospective analysis was performed on the FCG signals acquired in a previous study on six healthy subjects at rest, during quiet breathing. To this aim, the AM of LF-FCG and HF-FCG were first extracted via a linear envelope (LE) operation, consisting of rectification followed by low-pass filtering; then, the inspiratory peaks were located both in the LE of LF-FCG and HF-FCG, and in the reference respiratory signal (FRG). Finally, the inter-breath intervals were extracted from the obtained inspiratory peaks, and further analyzed via statistical analyses. The AM of HF-FCG exhibited higher consistency within the respiratory cycle, as compared to the LF-FCG. Indeed, the inspiratory peaks were recognized with a sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) in excess of 99% in the LE of HF-FCG, and with a sensitivity and PPV of 96.7% and 92.6%, respectively, in the LE of LF-FCG. In addition, the inter-breath intervals estimated from the HF-FCG scored a higher R2 value (0.95 vs. 0.86) and lower limits of agreement (± 0.710 s vs. ±1.34 s) as compared to LF-FCG, by considering those extracted from the FRG as the reference. The obtained results are consistent with those observed in previous studies on SCG. A possible explanation of these results was discussed. However, the preliminary results obtained in this study must be confirmed on a larger cohort of subjects and in different experimental conditions.

Respiratory-Induced Amplitude Modulation of Forcecardiography Signals / Centracchio, Jessica; Andreozzi, Emilio; Esposito, Daniele; Gargiulo, Gaetano D.. - In: BIOENGINEERING. - ISSN 2306-5354. - 9:9(2022), p. 444. [10.3390/bioengineering9090444]

Respiratory-Induced Amplitude Modulation of Forcecardiography Signals

Jessica Centracchio
Primo
Methodology
;
Emilio Andreozzi
Secondo
Conceptualization
;
Daniele Esposito
Penultimo
Writing – Review & Editing
;
2022

Abstract

Forcecardiography (FCG) is a novel technique that records the weak forces induced on the chest wall by cardio-respiratory activity, by using specific force sensors. FCG sensors feature a wide frequency band, which allows us to capture respiration, heart wall motion, heart valves opening and closing (similar to the Seismocardiogram, SCG) and heart sounds, all simultaneously from a single contact point on the chest. As a result, the raw FCG sensors signals exhibit a large component related to the respiratory activity, referred to as a Forcerespirogram (FRG), with a much smaller, superimposed component related to the cardiac activity (the actual FCG) that contains both infrasonic vibrations, referred to as LF-FCG and HF-FCG, and heart sounds. Although respiration can be readily monitored by extracting the very low-frequency component of the raw FCG signal (FRG), it has been observed that the respiratory activity also influences other FCG components, particularly causing amplitude modulations (AM). This preliminary study aimed to assess the consistency of the amplitude modulations of the LF-FCG and HF-FCG signals within the respiratory cycle. A retrospective analysis was performed on the FCG signals acquired in a previous study on six healthy subjects at rest, during quiet breathing. To this aim, the AM of LF-FCG and HF-FCG were first extracted via a linear envelope (LE) operation, consisting of rectification followed by low-pass filtering; then, the inspiratory peaks were located both in the LE of LF-FCG and HF-FCG, and in the reference respiratory signal (FRG). Finally, the inter-breath intervals were extracted from the obtained inspiratory peaks, and further analyzed via statistical analyses. The AM of HF-FCG exhibited higher consistency within the respiratory cycle, as compared to the LF-FCG. Indeed, the inspiratory peaks were recognized with a sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) in excess of 99% in the LE of HF-FCG, and with a sensitivity and PPV of 96.7% and 92.6%, respectively, in the LE of LF-FCG. In addition, the inter-breath intervals estimated from the HF-FCG scored a higher R2 value (0.95 vs. 0.86) and lower limits of agreement (± 0.710 s vs. ±1.34 s) as compared to LF-FCG, by considering those extracted from the FRG as the reference. The obtained results are consistent with those observed in previous studies on SCG. A possible explanation of these results was discussed. However, the preliminary results obtained in this study must be confirmed on a larger cohort of subjects and in different experimental conditions.
2022
Respiratory-Induced Amplitude Modulation of Forcecardiography Signals / Centracchio, Jessica; Andreozzi, Emilio; Esposito, Daniele; Gargiulo, Gaetano D.. - In: BIOENGINEERING. - ISSN 2306-5354. - 9:9(2022), p. 444. [10.3390/bioengineering9090444]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/903105
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