The antibiotic and nematocidal activities of extracts from two coastal lichen species collected on Lampedusa Island (Sicily), Ramalina implexa Nyl. and Roccella phycopsis Ach., were tested. Methyl orsellinate, orcinol, (+)-montagnetol, and for the first time 4-chlororcinol were isolated from Roccella phycopsis. (+)-Usnic acid was obtained from Ramalina implexa. The crude organic extract of both lichen species showed strong antibiotic activity against some bacterial species and nematocidal activity. Among all the pure metabolites tested against the infective juveniles (J2) of the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloydogine incognita, (+)-usnic acid, orcinol, and (+)-montagnetol had significant nematocidal activity, comparable with that of the commercial nematocide Velum® Prime, and thus they showed potential application in agriculture as a biopesticide. On the contrary, methyl orsellinate and 4-chlororcinol had no nematocidal effect. These results suggest that the substituent pattern at ortho-para-position in respect to both hydroxyl groups of resorcine moiety, which is present in all metabolites, seems very important for nematocidal activity. The organic extracts of both lichens were also tested against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Both extracts were active against Gram-positive species. The extract of Ramalina implexa showed, among Gram-negative species, activity against Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii, while that from Roccella phycopsis was effective towards all test strains, with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of (+)-usnic acid, methyl orsellinate, and (+)-montagnetol is already known, so tests were focused on orcinol and 4-chlororcinol. The former showed antibacterial activity against all Gram positive and Gram-negative test strains, with the exception of A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae, while the latter exhibited a potent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive test strains and among Gram-negative strains, was effective against A. baumannii and K. pneumonia. These results suggest, for orcinol and 4-chlororcinol, an interesting antibiotic potential against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains.

Antibiotic and Nematocidal Metabolites from Two Lichen Species Collected on the Island of Lampedusa (Sicily)

Roscetto, Emanuela;Varriale, Chiara;Catania, Maria Rosaria;Evidente, Antonio
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

The antibiotic and nematocidal activities of extracts from two coastal lichen species collected on Lampedusa Island (Sicily), Ramalina implexa Nyl. and Roccella phycopsis Ach., were tested. Methyl orsellinate, orcinol, (+)-montagnetol, and for the first time 4-chlororcinol were isolated from Roccella phycopsis. (+)-Usnic acid was obtained from Ramalina implexa. The crude organic extract of both lichen species showed strong antibiotic activity against some bacterial species and nematocidal activity. Among all the pure metabolites tested against the infective juveniles (J2) of the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloydogine incognita, (+)-usnic acid, orcinol, and (+)-montagnetol had significant nematocidal activity, comparable with that of the commercial nematocide Velum® Prime, and thus they showed potential application in agriculture as a biopesticide. On the contrary, methyl orsellinate and 4-chlororcinol had no nematocidal effect. These results suggest that the substituent pattern at ortho-para-position in respect to both hydroxyl groups of resorcine moiety, which is present in all metabolites, seems very important for nematocidal activity. The organic extracts of both lichens were also tested against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Both extracts were active against Gram-positive species. The extract of Ramalina implexa showed, among Gram-negative species, activity against Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii, while that from Roccella phycopsis was effective towards all test strains, with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of (+)-usnic acid, methyl orsellinate, and (+)-montagnetol is already known, so tests were focused on orcinol and 4-chlororcinol. The former showed antibacterial activity against all Gram positive and Gram-negative test strains, with the exception of A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae, while the latter exhibited a potent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive test strains and among Gram-negative strains, was effective against A. baumannii and K. pneumonia. These results suggest, for orcinol and 4-chlororcinol, an interesting antibiotic potential against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/901765
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