The Rearranged during Transfection (RET) oncogene has been extensively investigated in solid malignancies, particularly thyroid cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and represents an attractive therapeutic target. RET rearrangements occur in 1-2% of lung adenocarcinomas, where they function as potent oncogenic drivers. Importantly, tumors harboring RET fusions are particularly sensitive to RET tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Results of the LIBRETTO-001 and ARROW clinical trials led to the approval of novel potent and selective RET inhibitors, selpercatinib and pralsetinib, able to overcome the limits of previously used multikinase inhibitors. Herein, we review the most relevant evidences about the role of RET signaling in NSCLC. In addition, we interrogated the Project GENIE database to investigate common clinical and molecular features of RET-fusion positive NSCLC. This analysis revealed that RET rearrangements occurred more frequently in younger and light smoker patients and were associated with a lower tumor mutational burden, compared to RET-fusion negative tumors. Moreover, we assessed and described the differences between RET genomic alterations in NSCLC and thyroid cancers. Finally, we summarized how the treatment landscape of RET-rearranged NSCLC has changed in the last few years, which are the available data about the recognized mechanisms of resistance to RET inhibitors and the challenges for future development of novel therapeutic strategies, aiming to improve management of patients with RET-fusion positive NSCLC.

RET rearrangements in non-small cell lung cancer: Evolving treatment landscape and future challenges

Servetto, Alberto;Esposito, Daniela;Ferrara, Roberto;Belli, Stefania;Napolitano, Fabiana;Santaniello, Antonio;Ciciola, Paola;Formisano, Luigi;Bianco, Roberto
2022

Abstract

The Rearranged during Transfection (RET) oncogene has been extensively investigated in solid malignancies, particularly thyroid cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and represents an attractive therapeutic target. RET rearrangements occur in 1-2% of lung adenocarcinomas, where they function as potent oncogenic drivers. Importantly, tumors harboring RET fusions are particularly sensitive to RET tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Results of the LIBRETTO-001 and ARROW clinical trials led to the approval of novel potent and selective RET inhibitors, selpercatinib and pralsetinib, able to overcome the limits of previously used multikinase inhibitors. Herein, we review the most relevant evidences about the role of RET signaling in NSCLC. In addition, we interrogated the Project GENIE database to investigate common clinical and molecular features of RET-fusion positive NSCLC. This analysis revealed that RET rearrangements occurred more frequently in younger and light smoker patients and were associated with a lower tumor mutational burden, compared to RET-fusion negative tumors. Moreover, we assessed and described the differences between RET genomic alterations in NSCLC and thyroid cancers. Finally, we summarized how the treatment landscape of RET-rearranged NSCLC has changed in the last few years, which are the available data about the recognized mechanisms of resistance to RET inhibitors and the challenges for future development of novel therapeutic strategies, aiming to improve management of patients with RET-fusion positive NSCLC.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/901715
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