Giant pituitary adenomas are a subgroup of pituitary adenomas defined by a diameter greater than 4 cm, and they account for 5–14% of adenomas in surgical series. Because of their growth patterns and locations, often involving critical neurovascular structures, they represent a true surgical challenge, and gross total resection is difficult to achieve. There is no consensus on the optimal surgical strategy for giant pituitary adenomas, and, often, integrated multi-staged treatment strategies have been considered. Transcranial or transsphenoidal approaches, alone or combined, according to tumor and patient features are the two main routes. Each of these strategies has pros and cons. The conventional transcranial approach has for a long time been considered the first choice for the removal of giant pituitary adenomas. Currently, with endoscopic techniques, it is also possible to remove lesions that involve the intradural compartment and the adjacent neurovascular structures with the use of extended approaches. Our policy for the management of these lesions is to adopt the endoscopic endonasal approach as the first choice unless the tumor presents significant intracranial extension that results in it being outside the visibility and maneuverability of the endoscopic endonasal route. In these latter cases, we agree that the transcranial approach is more appropriate. However, accurate preoperative evaluation and refined treatment plans for each patient are mandatory to define a proper strategy in order to achieve the most effective long-term result.

Giant Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenomas: Treatment Considerations

Solari D.
;
Cavallo L. M.;Graziadio C.;Corvino S.;Bove I.;Esposito F.;Cappabianca P.
2022

Abstract

Giant pituitary adenomas are a subgroup of pituitary adenomas defined by a diameter greater than 4 cm, and they account for 5–14% of adenomas in surgical series. Because of their growth patterns and locations, often involving critical neurovascular structures, they represent a true surgical challenge, and gross total resection is difficult to achieve. There is no consensus on the optimal surgical strategy for giant pituitary adenomas, and, often, integrated multi-staged treatment strategies have been considered. Transcranial or transsphenoidal approaches, alone or combined, according to tumor and patient features are the two main routes. Each of these strategies has pros and cons. The conventional transcranial approach has for a long time been considered the first choice for the removal of giant pituitary adenomas. Currently, with endoscopic techniques, it is also possible to remove lesions that involve the intradural compartment and the adjacent neurovascular structures with the use of extended approaches. Our policy for the management of these lesions is to adopt the endoscopic endonasal approach as the first choice unless the tumor presents significant intracranial extension that results in it being outside the visibility and maneuverability of the endoscopic endonasal route. In these latter cases, we agree that the transcranial approach is more appropriate. However, accurate preoperative evaluation and refined treatment plans for each patient are mandatory to define a proper strategy in order to achieve the most effective long-term result.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/901176
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