Objective: to describe a single-center experience of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) in non-HIV patients recovering from COVID-19. Methods: We report the cases of five non-HIV patients with COVID-19 who also developed PJP at a University Hospital. Results: With the exception of one subject, who experienced an atypical and prolonged course of COVID-19, all the patients developed PJP after the clinical resolution of COVID-19 pneumonia. All but one patient had no pre-existing immunosuppressive conditions or other risk factors for PJP development at COVID-19 di-agnosis. Nonetheless, following the course of COVID-19 infection, all the patients fulfilled at least one host factor for PJP; indeed, all the patients had received at least 2 weeks of high-dose steroids and three out of five had a CD4+ cell count <200/mm3. Conclusions: The use of corticosteroids for COVID-19 respiratory impairment seems to be the most common risk factor for PJP, together with viral-induced and iatrogenic lymphopenia. The worsening in respiratory function and the charac-teristic radiological picture during or after COVID-19 pneumonia should raise the suspicion of PJP, even in immunocompetent patients. PJP primary chemoprophylaxis can be considered in selected high-risk COVID-19 patients, but further studies are needed.

Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Non-HIV Patients Recovering from COVID-19: A Single-Center Experience

Gentile, Ivan;Viceconte, Giulio;Lanzardo, Amedeo;Zotta, Irene;Zappulo, Emanuela;Pinchera, Biagio;Scotto, Riccardo;Schiano Moriello, Nicola;Foggia, Maria;Giaccone, Agnese;Salvatore, Paola;Buonomo, Antonio Riccardo;
2021

Abstract

Objective: to describe a single-center experience of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) in non-HIV patients recovering from COVID-19. Methods: We report the cases of five non-HIV patients with COVID-19 who also developed PJP at a University Hospital. Results: With the exception of one subject, who experienced an atypical and prolonged course of COVID-19, all the patients developed PJP after the clinical resolution of COVID-19 pneumonia. All but one patient had no pre-existing immunosuppressive conditions or other risk factors for PJP development at COVID-19 di-agnosis. Nonetheless, following the course of COVID-19 infection, all the patients fulfilled at least one host factor for PJP; indeed, all the patients had received at least 2 weeks of high-dose steroids and three out of five had a CD4+ cell count <200/mm3. Conclusions: The use of corticosteroids for COVID-19 respiratory impairment seems to be the most common risk factor for PJP, together with viral-induced and iatrogenic lymphopenia. The worsening in respiratory function and the charac-teristic radiological picture during or after COVID-19 pneumonia should raise the suspicion of PJP, even in immunocompetent patients. PJP primary chemoprophylaxis can be considered in selected high-risk COVID-19 patients, but further studies are needed.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/900686
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