Aims/hypothesis: Antibodies specific to oxidative post-translational modifications (oxPTM) of insulin (oxPTM-INS) are present in most individuals with type 1 diabetes, even before the clinical onset. However, the antigenic determinants of such response are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the antibody response to oxPTM-INS neoepitope peptides (oxPTM-INSPs) and evaluated their ability to stimulate humoral and T cell responses in type 1 diabetes. We also assessed the concordance between antibody and T cell responses to the oxPTM-INS neoantigenic peptides. Methods: oxPTM-INS was generated by exposing insulin to various reactive oxidants. The insulin fragments resulting from oxPTM were fractionated by size-exclusion chromatography further to ELISA and LC-MS/MS analysis to identify the oxidised peptide neoepitopes. Immunogenic peptide candidates were produced and then modified in house or designed to incorporate in silico-oxidised amino acids during synthesis. Autoantibodies to the oxPTM-INSPs were tested by ELISA using sera from 63 participants with new-onset type 1 diabetes and 30 control participants. An additional 18 fresh blood samples from participants with recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes, five with established disease, and from 11 control participants were used to evaluate, in parallel, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation by oxPTM-INSPs. Results: We observed antibody and T cell responses to three out of six LC-MS/MS-identified insulin peptide candidates: A:12–21 (SLYQLENYCN, native insulin peptide 3 [Nt-INSP-3]), B:11–30 (LVEALYLVCGERGFFYTPKT, Nt-INSP-4) and B:21–30 (ERGFFYTPKT, Nt-INSP-6). For Nt-INSP-4 and Nt-INSP-6, serum antibody binding was stronger in type 1 diabetes compared with healthy control participants (p≤0.02), with oxidised forms of ERGFFYTPKT, oxPTM-INSP-6 conferring the highest antibody binding (83% binders to peptide modified in house by hydroxyl radical [●OH] and >88% to in silico-oxidised peptide; p≤0.001 vs control participants). Nt-INSP-4 induced the strongest T cell stimulation in type 1 diabetes compared with control participants for both CD4+ (p<0.001) and CD8+ (p=0.049). CD4+ response to oxPTM-INSP-6 was also commoner in type 1 diabetes than in control participants (66.7% vs 27.3%; p=0.039). Among individuals with type 1 diabetes, the CD4+ response to oxPTM-INSP-6 was more frequent than to Nt-INSP-6 (66.7% vs 27.8%; p=0.045). Overall, 44.4% of patients showed a concordant autoimmune response to oxPTM-INSP involving simultaneously CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and autoantibodies. Conclusions/interpretation: Our findings support the concept that oxidative stress, and neoantigenic epitopes of insulin, may be involved in the immunopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Autoantibody and T cell responses to oxidative post-translationally modified insulin neoantigenic peptides in type 1 diabetes

Piemonte E.;Galgani M.;
2022

Abstract

Aims/hypothesis: Antibodies specific to oxidative post-translational modifications (oxPTM) of insulin (oxPTM-INS) are present in most individuals with type 1 diabetes, even before the clinical onset. However, the antigenic determinants of such response are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the antibody response to oxPTM-INS neoepitope peptides (oxPTM-INSPs) and evaluated their ability to stimulate humoral and T cell responses in type 1 diabetes. We also assessed the concordance between antibody and T cell responses to the oxPTM-INS neoantigenic peptides. Methods: oxPTM-INS was generated by exposing insulin to various reactive oxidants. The insulin fragments resulting from oxPTM were fractionated by size-exclusion chromatography further to ELISA and LC-MS/MS analysis to identify the oxidised peptide neoepitopes. Immunogenic peptide candidates were produced and then modified in house or designed to incorporate in silico-oxidised amino acids during synthesis. Autoantibodies to the oxPTM-INSPs were tested by ELISA using sera from 63 participants with new-onset type 1 diabetes and 30 control participants. An additional 18 fresh blood samples from participants with recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes, five with established disease, and from 11 control participants were used to evaluate, in parallel, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation by oxPTM-INSPs. Results: We observed antibody and T cell responses to three out of six LC-MS/MS-identified insulin peptide candidates: A:12–21 (SLYQLENYCN, native insulin peptide 3 [Nt-INSP-3]), B:11–30 (LVEALYLVCGERGFFYTPKT, Nt-INSP-4) and B:21–30 (ERGFFYTPKT, Nt-INSP-6). For Nt-INSP-4 and Nt-INSP-6, serum antibody binding was stronger in type 1 diabetes compared with healthy control participants (p≤0.02), with oxidised forms of ERGFFYTPKT, oxPTM-INSP-6 conferring the highest antibody binding (83% binders to peptide modified in house by hydroxyl radical [●OH] and >88% to in silico-oxidised peptide; p≤0.001 vs control participants). Nt-INSP-4 induced the strongest T cell stimulation in type 1 diabetes compared with control participants for both CD4+ (p<0.001) and CD8+ (p=0.049). CD4+ response to oxPTM-INSP-6 was also commoner in type 1 diabetes than in control participants (66.7% vs 27.3%; p=0.039). Among individuals with type 1 diabetes, the CD4+ response to oxPTM-INSP-6 was more frequent than to Nt-INSP-6 (66.7% vs 27.8%; p=0.045). Overall, 44.4% of patients showed a concordant autoimmune response to oxPTM-INSP involving simultaneously CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and autoantibodies. Conclusions/interpretation: Our findings support the concept that oxidative stress, and neoantigenic epitopes of insulin, may be involved in the immunopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/900504
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