Background: While mitral (MV) and tricuspid valve (TV) pulsed Doppler velocities and derived gradients are commonly evaluated, data on normal pediatric values are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the normal values and physiological variability for MV and TV Doppler velocities and derived gradients in a large cohort of prospectively enrolled healthy children. Methods: The echocardiographic measurements included pulsed Doppler MV and TV E and A velocities, E deceleration times (EDT), maximal and mean gradients, and velocity time integral (VTI). Results: A total of 544 healthy subjects (median age 6.4 years, range 1 day–17.68 years) were included. MV and TV E velocity, E/A ratio, and E and A wave duration increased, while A velocity decreased with age (p < 0.001). Along with an increase in VTI, there occurred a progressive increase in maximum velocity and gradients and a decrease in mean velocities and gradients. E/A inversions were common, especially at the TV in neonates and infants. For MV, inversion in either one, two, or three consecutive beats occurred in 51.9% of neonates and 18.3% of infants, while it was rare at older ages (all p < 0.001). For TV, inversions in three consecutive beats occurred in 71.4% of neonates, while inversions in only one or two beats were more common in infants (27.3%). For TV, inversion in one or more beats, however, was not infrequent at all ages. Conclusions: We report normal values and patterns of normality and physiological variability for MV and TV inflow Doppler from a large population of healthy children.

Normal Values and Patterns of Normality and Physiological Variability of Mitral and Tricuspid Inflow Pulsed Doppler in Healthy Children

Giordano R.
2022

Abstract

Background: While mitral (MV) and tricuspid valve (TV) pulsed Doppler velocities and derived gradients are commonly evaluated, data on normal pediatric values are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the normal values and physiological variability for MV and TV Doppler velocities and derived gradients in a large cohort of prospectively enrolled healthy children. Methods: The echocardiographic measurements included pulsed Doppler MV and TV E and A velocities, E deceleration times (EDT), maximal and mean gradients, and velocity time integral (VTI). Results: A total of 544 healthy subjects (median age 6.4 years, range 1 day–17.68 years) were included. MV and TV E velocity, E/A ratio, and E and A wave duration increased, while A velocity decreased with age (p < 0.001). Along with an increase in VTI, there occurred a progressive increase in maximum velocity and gradients and a decrease in mean velocities and gradients. E/A inversions were common, especially at the TV in neonates and infants. For MV, inversion in either one, two, or three consecutive beats occurred in 51.9% of neonates and 18.3% of infants, while it was rare at older ages (all p < 0.001). For TV, inversions in three consecutive beats occurred in 71.4% of neonates, while inversions in only one or two beats were more common in infants (27.3%). For TV, inversion in one or more beats, however, was not infrequent at all ages. Conclusions: We report normal values and patterns of normality and physiological variability for MV and TV inflow Doppler from a large population of healthy children.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
79 Healthcare Mitral and Tricuspid.pdf

solo utenti autorizzati

Licenza: Accesso privato/ristretto
Dimensione 243.42 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
243.42 kB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri   Richiedi una copia

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/899267
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 0
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact