Background: Speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) has gained increasing value in the evaluation of congenital heart diseases (CHD); however, its use in pediatric cardiac surgery is limited. Aim: To evaluate left ventricular (LV) systolic impairment after biventricular pediatric cardiac surgery by STE strain (ε) analysis. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 117 children undergoing cardiac surgery for CHD. Echocardiography was performed at four different times: pre-operatively, 12–36 h (Time 1), 3–5 days (Time 2), and 6–8 days (Time 3). Images were obtained in the 4-2-and 3 apical chamber’s views to derive LV global and regional (basal/mid/apical) ε values. Results: At different postoperative times, we performed 320 examinations in 117 children (mean age: 2.4 ± 3.9, range: 0–16 years); 117 age-matched healthy children served as controls. All global, basal, and mid LVε values decreased after surgery; the lowest values being at Time 1 (p < 0.0001), which increased thereafter. At discharge, all global, basal, and mid LVε values remained lower than in pre-operative and healthy children (p < 0.05). Instead, apical segments (lowest at baseline) increased after surgery (p < 0.0001) but remained lower compared to controls. LV ejection fraction (LVEF) decreased at Time 1 (p = 0.0004) but promptly recovered to Time 2 and normalized at Time 3. Conclusions: STE ε analysis revealed a significant LV systolic impairment after surgery with amelioration thereafter but incomplete normalization at discharge. Base-apex differences emerged with apical segments that, contrary to all the other regions, showed relative hypercontractility after surgery. The slower recovery of LVε values compared to LVEF suggests that STE ε analysis may be more accurate for the follow-up of mild LV post-surgical impairment.

Left ventricular systolic impairment after pediatric cardiac surgery assessed by ste analysis

Giordano R.
2021

Abstract

Background: Speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) has gained increasing value in the evaluation of congenital heart diseases (CHD); however, its use in pediatric cardiac surgery is limited. Aim: To evaluate left ventricular (LV) systolic impairment after biventricular pediatric cardiac surgery by STE strain (ε) analysis. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 117 children undergoing cardiac surgery for CHD. Echocardiography was performed at four different times: pre-operatively, 12–36 h (Time 1), 3–5 days (Time 2), and 6–8 days (Time 3). Images were obtained in the 4-2-and 3 apical chamber’s views to derive LV global and regional (basal/mid/apical) ε values. Results: At different postoperative times, we performed 320 examinations in 117 children (mean age: 2.4 ± 3.9, range: 0–16 years); 117 age-matched healthy children served as controls. All global, basal, and mid LVε values decreased after surgery; the lowest values being at Time 1 (p < 0.0001), which increased thereafter. At discharge, all global, basal, and mid LVε values remained lower than in pre-operative and healthy children (p < 0.05). Instead, apical segments (lowest at baseline) increased after surgery (p < 0.0001) but remained lower compared to controls. LV ejection fraction (LVEF) decreased at Time 1 (p = 0.0004) but promptly recovered to Time 2 and normalized at Time 3. Conclusions: STE ε analysis revealed a significant LV systolic impairment after surgery with amelioration thereafter but incomplete normalization at discharge. Base-apex differences emerged with apical segments that, contrary to all the other regions, showed relative hypercontractility after surgery. The slower recovery of LVε values compared to LVEF suggests that STE ε analysis may be more accurate for the follow-up of mild LV post-surgical impairment.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/899263
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