Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which, since 2019 in China, has rapidly become a worldwide pandemic. The aggressiveness and global spread were enhanced by the many SARS-CoV-2 variants that have been isolated up to now. These mutations affect mostly the viral glycoprotein Spike (S), the capsid protein mainly involved in the early stages of viral entry processes, through the recognition of specific receptors on the host cell surface. In particular, the subunit S1 of the Spike glycoprotein contains the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) and it is responsible for the interaction with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Although ACE2 is the primary Spike host receptor currently studied, it has been demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 is also able to infect cells expressing low levels of ACE2, indicating that the virus may have alternative receptors on the host cells. The identification of the alternative receptors can better elucidate the pathogenicity and the tropism of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, we investigated the Spike S1 interactomes, starting from host membrane proteins of non-pulmonary cell lines, such as human kidney (HK-2), normal colon (NCM460D), and colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2). We employed an affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS) to pull down, from the membrane protein extracts of all cell lines, the protein partners of the recombinant form of the Spike S1 domain. The purified interactors were identified by a shotgun proteomics approach. The lists of S1 potential interacting proteins were then clusterized according to cellular localization, biological processes, and pathways, highlighting new possible S1 intracellular functions, crucial not only for the entrance mechanisms but also for viral replication and propagation processes.

Spike S1 domain interactome in non-pulmonary systems: A role beyond the receptor recognition

Iacobucci, Ilaria
Primo
;
Monaco, Vittoria;Canè, Luisa;Cioffi, Valentina;Cozzolino, Flora;Guarino, Alfredo;Zollo, Massimo;Monti, Maria
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which, since 2019 in China, has rapidly become a worldwide pandemic. The aggressiveness and global spread were enhanced by the many SARS-CoV-2 variants that have been isolated up to now. These mutations affect mostly the viral glycoprotein Spike (S), the capsid protein mainly involved in the early stages of viral entry processes, through the recognition of specific receptors on the host cell surface. In particular, the subunit S1 of the Spike glycoprotein contains the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) and it is responsible for the interaction with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Although ACE2 is the primary Spike host receptor currently studied, it has been demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 is also able to infect cells expressing low levels of ACE2, indicating that the virus may have alternative receptors on the host cells. The identification of the alternative receptors can better elucidate the pathogenicity and the tropism of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, we investigated the Spike S1 interactomes, starting from host membrane proteins of non-pulmonary cell lines, such as human kidney (HK-2), normal colon (NCM460D), and colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2). We employed an affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS) to pull down, from the membrane protein extracts of all cell lines, the protein partners of the recombinant form of the Spike S1 domain. The purified interactors were identified by a shotgun proteomics approach. The lists of S1 potential interacting proteins were then clusterized according to cellular localization, biological processes, and pathways, highlighting new possible S1 intracellular functions, crucial not only for the entrance mechanisms but also for viral replication and propagation processes.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/899138
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