The Bobaomby volcanic field (10–11 Ma) is the northernmost volcanic area of Madagascar, and is a monogenetic volcanic field comprising outcrops of lava flows, dykes, scoria cones, tuff rings and plugs, widely scattered over an area of roughly 500 km2. The volcanic rocks range in composition from nephelinite, basanite and tephrite, through tephritic phonolite, to F- and Cl-rich peralkaline phonolite (MgO from 13 to 0.01 wt%), and the serial affinity varies from sodic to potassic. A few mica-amphibole-rich lamprophyric dykes have tephritic composition and ultrapotassic affinity. The mafic lavas host intrusive xenoliths with evident cumulate features (wehrlites, composite olivine gabbros s.l., amphibole clinopyroxenites and “kaersutitites”), as well as various types of mantle-derived xenoliths and xenocrysts in the most primitive rocks. The very wide compositional variations of the observed phases (olivine, clinopyroxene, amphibole, oxides, feldspars, feldspathoids, apatite, titanite, aenigmatite and other accessories) in lavas, dykes and cognate xenoliths are fully consistent with the variable degree of differentiation of the host lavas/dykes, and pointing out to limited open-system or polybaric crystallization. The mafic lavas have marked enrichment in incompatible elements and light rare-earth element (LREE) (e.g., Lan/Ybn = 19–27), whereas concave REE patterns are found in the peralkaline phonolites, as a result of removal of accessory titanite starting from tephritic phonolite magmas. The gabbroic/ultramafic xenoliths are interpreted as crustal cumulates of basanitic and tephritic magmas. Several liquid lines of descent in the basanites and tephrites are evident from the trace-element distribution, and from the differing geochemistry of the evolved rocks. The isotopic compositions reach extreme values (e.g., 206Pb/204Pb = 20.065 in the ultrapotassic lamprophyre) when compared to the rest of the Cenozoic/Recent Madagascan volcanic rocks, but similar to those of the Comoros archipelago, suggesting analogies of mantle sources and enrichment processes in the lithosphere of this volcanic archipelago. The origin of the Bobaomby mafic rocks is compatible from a derivation from low degree partial melting of an incompatible element-enriched peridotite source (possibly located in the lowermost lithospheric mantle) rich in volatile-rich phases (pargasite, locally also phlogopite and possibly carbonates), matching the sources of other Cenozoic volcanic areas throughout Madagascar, and perhaps Comoros.

Alkaline rocks of the Bobaomby volcanic field point to a petrogenetic link between Comoros and northern Madagascar lithosphere

Cucciniello C.
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Grifa C.
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Franciosi L.
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Rocco I.
Conceptualization
;
Morra V.
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Melluso L.
Writing – Review & Editing
2022

Abstract

The Bobaomby volcanic field (10–11 Ma) is the northernmost volcanic area of Madagascar, and is a monogenetic volcanic field comprising outcrops of lava flows, dykes, scoria cones, tuff rings and plugs, widely scattered over an area of roughly 500 km2. The volcanic rocks range in composition from nephelinite, basanite and tephrite, through tephritic phonolite, to F- and Cl-rich peralkaline phonolite (MgO from 13 to 0.01 wt%), and the serial affinity varies from sodic to potassic. A few mica-amphibole-rich lamprophyric dykes have tephritic composition and ultrapotassic affinity. The mafic lavas host intrusive xenoliths with evident cumulate features (wehrlites, composite olivine gabbros s.l., amphibole clinopyroxenites and “kaersutitites”), as well as various types of mantle-derived xenoliths and xenocrysts in the most primitive rocks. The very wide compositional variations of the observed phases (olivine, clinopyroxene, amphibole, oxides, feldspars, feldspathoids, apatite, titanite, aenigmatite and other accessories) in lavas, dykes and cognate xenoliths are fully consistent with the variable degree of differentiation of the host lavas/dykes, and pointing out to limited open-system or polybaric crystallization. The mafic lavas have marked enrichment in incompatible elements and light rare-earth element (LREE) (e.g., Lan/Ybn = 19–27), whereas concave REE patterns are found in the peralkaline phonolites, as a result of removal of accessory titanite starting from tephritic phonolite magmas. The gabbroic/ultramafic xenoliths are interpreted as crustal cumulates of basanitic and tephritic magmas. Several liquid lines of descent in the basanites and tephrites are evident from the trace-element distribution, and from the differing geochemistry of the evolved rocks. The isotopic compositions reach extreme values (e.g., 206Pb/204Pb = 20.065 in the ultrapotassic lamprophyre) when compared to the rest of the Cenozoic/Recent Madagascan volcanic rocks, but similar to those of the Comoros archipelago, suggesting analogies of mantle sources and enrichment processes in the lithosphere of this volcanic archipelago. The origin of the Bobaomby mafic rocks is compatible from a derivation from low degree partial melting of an incompatible element-enriched peridotite source (possibly located in the lowermost lithospheric mantle) rich in volatile-rich phases (pargasite, locally also phlogopite and possibly carbonates), matching the sources of other Cenozoic volcanic areas throughout Madagascar, and perhaps Comoros.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/896759
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